Deux controverses ont marqué (et continuent de le faire) la discipline des relations internationales. La première est une controverse philosophique qui porte sur la nature du milieu international (entre «paix précaire» et « état de guerre») et continue, aujourd’hui encore, de diviser les auteurs. La seconde est une controverse sur la nature de la théorie des relations internationales (approches « classiques » ou « traditionnelles » d’une part, approches « scientifiques » d’autre part). Cet article aborde un champ disciplinaire mal connu en France, celui de la théorie des Relations Internationales, où il est souvent réduit au qualificatif de « Géopolitique ». Malgré les controverses et débats scientifiques qui peuvent opposer ses chefs de file, il a occupé une place particulièrement importante dans le monde anglo-saxon, en particulier aux Etats-Unis, tant pour la formation des décideurs, que pour le diagnostic et le traitement des problèmes internationaux.
Tsao, Hung-ping (2019). Evolutionary mathematics and science for numbers intricacy investigation. In: “Evolutionary Progress in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM)”, Wang, Lawrence K. and Tsao, Hung-ping (editors). Volume 1, Number 2, February 2019; 160 pages. Lenox Institute Press, Newtonville, NY, 12128-0405, USA. No. STEAM-VOL1-NUM2-FEB2019; ISBN 978-0-9890870-3-2. —————ABSTRACT: All foreseeable approaches to derive polynomial expressions for the power-sum of the natural sequence are presented here. Throughout, binomial coefficients play as the key role of linking together the product-sums and the power-sums. The author takes the opportunity to sort out the intricate liaisons among Stirling numbers of both kinds, Euler numbers of two orders, ordered and Eulerian Bell polynomials. He further generalizes the related numbers based on the natural sequence to those that are arithmetically progressive sequence based so that various structures of triangular arrays can be built on top of different underlying bases.
In August 2015 Katerina Stefatos and Dimitris Papadopoulos spent a few weeks (August 4-20) on the Greek island of Lesvos in what was initially planned as a trip to visit family and friends. Their trip quickly morphed into an impromptu ethnographic fieldwork at the three main refugee camps in Mytilini, the island’s major town. This paper is based on some first ethnographic notes from the field drawing on interviews and discussions with refugees, locals, and volunteers at these camps in an attempt to unfold the refugees’ tumultuous and often deadly journey to an imagined Europe but also to explore the political tensions and contestations within the local community against the background of a parallel Greek financial and socio-political crisis. Chloe Howe Haralambous spent her summer (June to August) on Lesvos, primarily in the north-east part of the island (at Kleió, Tsónia, Sykaminiá, Mólyvos), working closely with refugees, volunteers, NGOs, and helping organizing makeshift dwellings for the refugees or coordinating their transfer to medical centers and to the port of Mytilini. The text has been updated based on recent developments on the island and our ongoing personal communication with some of the refugees, volunteers and locals.
In this essay, I explore the ways in which the bodies of migrants, specifically of Lebanese men who have returned from Africa, are represented in Lebanese fiction. By focusing on the ways in which these figures are embodied textually, I seek to begin to shed light on the ways in which Lebanese authors have engaged with certain diaspora spaces, in this case, the often undifferentiated referent ‘Africa’. I argue that the ways in which Lebanese fiction engages with the Lebanese experience in the African diaspora reveals not only a cultural attitude towards Africa that is tangled up in notions of scientific racism, and a colonial and postcolonial anxiety about Lebanese identity and nationalism, but also, concomitantly, a gnawing anxiety over the meaning of Lebanese identity and the viability of Lebanon itself. In this essay, I closely read two texts written and published almost a century apart, showing the remarkable similarity that nevertheless exists between them. However, I argue that, especially in the earlier prose fiction that is the main focus of this essay, Lebanese identity is figured as a sort of between-ness, between white European and African identities; it is through this betweenness that the figure of the exemplary Lebanese individual emerges.
An abandoned rock quarry is a ruined, emptied landscape. Although bearing witness to strenuous work, as a subject of representation it cannot summon the sort of national pride invested in fertile agricultural landscapes, industrious windmills and aqueducts; quarried land is an intervention better off forgotten. When depleted, it is typically abandoned; its remaining void remaining then fills with refuse and run off waters that “rise into ruin,” breeding miasma and social panic. Open quarries on the edge of Paris (whose material had built the city) became embarrassing eyesores and were often filled in and tidied up. The best known case is the wildly spectacular Buttes-Chaumont park, landscaped for the 1867 Universal Exposition to hide the former lime quarries, squatters’ camps and waste dumping grounds. Robert Smithson, in his infamous essay “A Tour of the Monuments of Passaic” (Artforum, 1967) suggests that the notion of what constitutes a “monument” is constructed by the spectator who alone determines its cultural value. This paper proposes to read paintings of quarries in the Paris region and in Provence that Van Gogh and Cézanne repeatedly painted through Smithson’s notion of the “entropic ruin”.
Previous studies of Christian runic inscriptions have tended to deal with particular types of inscription from defined periods of time. This article analyses all the relevant Scandinavian runic material from the Viking Age and the Middle Ages, focusing on textual features and material contexts of inscriptions that use prayers and invocations. Its main aim is to explore the dynamics of what may be termed “the runic prayer tradition” with a view to identifying potentially stable elements of this tradition as well as those that alter over time. Two main categories of prayer and invocation explored are formulations in the vernacular and in Church Latin. The results of the study reveal various possibilities of variation in the runic prayer tradition, but also suggest links and overlaps between the earlier and later vernacular prayers. The evidence further suggests some sort of a division between a monumental (or public) form of discourse in connection with rune-stones, grave monuments and church buildings — which are dominated by vernacular prayers — and that of various loose objects, where Latin prayer formulas seem to be favoured.
I want to touch the Middle Ages. I want to hold all of the works of art in all the museums. I want to turn the pages, not by touching a screen or mouse in the Brit- ish Library’s Turning The PagesTM app, but by touching vellum in the British Li- brary’s reading room. I want to open and close the wings on altarpieces, to feel ivories warm in my hand, to drink from the Mérode Cup while achieving check- mate with the Lewis Chessmen. I have even been tempted, like John, to eat the occasional book (fig. 1). Lead paints (and laws) make this a bad idea. Some of this is impossible; some is not. With a bit of planning and funding and effort, I can get myself to the British Library, where the generous librarians allow me access to wonders. With the right letters of introduction and negotiations, I can gain access to other collections, other treasures, other experiences, but I will never drink from a medieval cup, I suspect. I am deeply fortunate to have the sorts of access I have, and I try not to push my luck, so that such privileges may continue and expand.
To understand the Oulipo’s forays into computer science and more importantly, why they abandoned them, I designed and carried out one of the inaugural projects of the Princeton Center for Digital Humanities. The goal was twofold: first, through exploratory programming, I intended to create interactive, digital annexes to accompany my doctoral dissertation; more importantly, I hoped that by attempting to reproduce the Oulipo’s own algorithmic efforts, I would gain similar insights into the nature of “Potential Literature” and be able to understand why the group abandoned such efforts after the 1970s. This article describes the content, development, and results of my project. For each of my three Python-based annexes, I offer a historical survey of the Oulipian text or procedure discussed within and the Oulipo’s own proto-digital humanities experiments; then, I will talk about my own experiences as a coder-researcher, what learning Python has brought to my project, and how my exploratory programming offered me a new kind of critical reflection. Establishing these annexes forced me to learn to code, a type of work that does not only produce digital texts, but also helped me to reflect on the notion of chance in a more nuanced way. Finally, coding has allowed me to better understand the Oulipian mentality concerning this sort of digital experimentation.
The pageant that ends Shakespeare’s Merry Wives of Windsor alludes in its form and themes to the country-house entertainments performed for Elizabeth on progress. It interprets this kind of pageantry as a space to negotiate communal identities and as an opportunity for women and the nonelite to intervene socially and politically. As it does so, it reveals friction between regional pride and emerging nationalism, and it suggests that Elizabeth served as a powerful model of female authority for women of the middling sort. We find substantial difference in the pageant’s language between the 1602 Quarto and the 1623 Folio. Although previous scholars have argued that the Quarto is anticourt and would not make sense as a royal performance, its intertextuality with royal entertainment highlights the subtle tribute it offers Elizabeth. The Quarto pageant celebrates Windsor as a self-sufficient community that serves royal interests without sacrificing its own. The Folio pageant offers more explicit allusions to the court, and these additional references make it not more celebratory but more ambivalent, as it both emulates and parodies Elizabethan court festival. The Folio’s development of ideologies present in more subtle ways in the Quarto, such as its heightened celebration of self-governing women, lends support to the possibility that the Quarto is an early text and that the Folio is a revised version.
Litteraturbanken (The Swedish Literature Bank) is a freely available digital collection of Swedish literary works, ranging from medieval to contemporary literature. It is the result of a cooperation between literary and linguistic scholars, research libraries, and editorial societies and academies. The collection consists not only of digital facsimiles, but of ocr’ed, proof-checked and TEI-encoded transcriptions as well, including EPUB and HTML versions of texts, and in addition scholarly presentations and didactic introductions to works and authors in the collection. It is also being used as a publishing platform for ongoing Swedish scholarly editing projects. Litteraturbanken currently comprises more than 2.000 works, mounting up to more than 100 million of machine-readable words. Litteraturbanken‘s main weak spot is transparency; it does not openly provide satisfactory ways to ensure the editors accountability for the edited texts and images. As a whole, however, Litteraturbanken is an impressive endeavour and paves the way for fruitful cooperation and massive data exchange with e.g. computational linguistics and bibliographic databases.