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DepositSympathetic Networks:Negotiating Multiple Scholarly Identities as a PhD Student

Nearing the completion of my PhD in Interdisciplinary Humanities, I have been taking stock of my experience working between digital humanities (DH), art history, visual culture, and literary studies. One of my first doctoral courses was in DH; I remember repeatedly having to provide basic definitions of the field for both professors and colleagues to explain exactly what studying and working in “digital humanities” meant. In retrospect, this was perhaps an omen, and a sign that I would receive minimal support within my institution. When I discovered that I found DH work meaningful and compelling, I had to forge my own path, working on two separate but related tracks: my “traditional” dissertation in visual arts and poetry, recognized by my program and committee, and my independent foray into digital versions of these, which combine critical discourses in DH and Digital Art History (DAH), Electronic Literature as it relates to new media art and visual cultural studies. The roster of my “extra-curricular” DH work includes presentations of my research at CSDH and ADHO conferences, collaborations with international scholars, employment as a research assistant on DH projects of varying scales led by English, Visual Arts, and Faculty of Education faculty, regular attendance of the Digital Humanities Summer Institute (DHSI) at the University of Victoria since 2014, and serving on the program committee for two multi-institutional Digital Pedagogy Institutes; I will be starting a SSHRC postdoctoral fellowship at York University’s Sensorium Centre in 2021 that builds from my expertise in using, building, and theoretically engaging with digital archives. I have discovered that, while maintaining parallel career tracks has been time consuming, not only are the paths now merging in fruitful ways, but I have access to a network of generous mentors who have similarly needed to work against the grain of institutional conventions.

DepositIntroduction — Soul Wars: The Problem and Promise of Proselytism in Russia

A new war has developed for the salvation of souls in Russia, as local and foreign religious groups battle in Russia over the right and power to proselytize. This is, in parti a legal war just as it is a religious war, as the Russian government has developed favorite denominations and oppressed others. After the Soviet Union crumbled, president Mikhail Gorbachev broke the Marxist/Lennist atheism of Russian and allowed religious freedom with legal backing. No state religion was implemented, and Russia entered a golden age of religious liberty along with a massive religious awakening, both within and without its borders. Foreign religious groups even began to make some headway in Orthodox Russia. These new arrivals eventually created resentment due to their Western concepts and their “hit and run evangelism.” The Russian Orthodox church requested these groups lower their level of activity, but they were ignored and forced to turn to state law. They proposed restrictions on foreign proselytism, which were only enacted on the local level. However, the Russian government eventually passed the Freedom of Conscience Law, a controversial law that places religious groups with certain classes. The Orthodox Russian Church receives legal protection and benefits. Traditional foreign religions, like Protestant Christian and mainline Jewish and Muslim sects, are given full protection under the law, but fewer benefits. Other religious groups, those considered “dangerous” by the Orthodox Russian Church, are given only a pro forma guarantee of freedom of worship and liberty of conscience. Similarly, religious organizations are given a juridical personality and affirmative rights, while religious group are given only minimal protections and can be dissolved for a number of reasons that are vague and expansive.

DepositIntroduction to Proselytism and Orthodoxy in Russia: The New War for Souls

A new war has developed for the salvation of souls in Russia, as local and foreign religious groups battle in Russia over the right and power to proselytize. This is, in parti a legal war just as it is a religious war, as the Russian government has developed favorite denominations and oppressed others. After the Soviet Union crumbled, president Mikhail Gorbachev broke the Marxist/Lennist atheism of Russian and allowed religious freedom with legal backing. No state religion was implemented, and Russia entered a golden age of religious liberty along with a massive religious awakening, both within and without its borders. Foreign religious groups even began to make some headway in Orthodox Russia. These new arrivals eventually created resentment due to their Western concepts and their “hit and run evangelism.” The Russian Orthodox church requested these groups lower their level of activity, but they were ignored and forced to turn to state law. They proposed restrictions on foreign proselytism, which were only enacted on the local level. However, the Russian government eventually passed the Freedom of Conscience Law, a controversial law that places religious groups with certain classes. The Orthodox Russian Church receives legal protection and benefits. Traditional foreign religions, like Protestant Christian and mainline Jewish and Muslim sects, are given full protection under the law, but fewer benefits. Other religious groups, those considered “dangerous” by the Orthodox Russian Church, are given only a pro forma guarantee of freedom of worship and liberty of conscience. Similarly, religious organizations are given a juridical personality and affirmative rights, while religious group are given only minimal protections and can be dissolved for a number of reasons that are vague and expansive.

DepositNeoliberalism and it Impact on Post-9/11 American Poetry

My article examines two post-9/11 American poems – “Towers Down” by Clive Matson and “When the World As We Knew It Ended” by Joy Harjo – against the background of neoliberalism in American society and the neoliberal global order. Neoliberalism both as a concept — which basically denotes open markets, free trade and minimal government interference into the economy and the society of a nation – and as a social actualization emerged in 1980s and lasted up to the 1990s, but was increasingly threatened by a succession of socio-political and economic forces like the terrorist attacks of 9/11, Arab Spring, Occupy movements and its European counterparts. Placing the two poems within this socio-political and economic context this article conducts a nuanced analysis of those two poems, making the point that while the first poem considers neoliberalism as a tool of economic exploitation mired in imperialism, the second one views neoliberalism and its physical manifestation, the Twin Towers, as a naive prelapsarian dream which is shattered by post-9/11 disillusionment. Moreover, while the first poem regards the destruction of the Twin Towers as the symbolic demise of neoliberalism, the second one proposes a creative transmutation of the pain of disillusionment. My article aims to demonstrate the point that each of the foregoing poems could be read both as an aesthetic object and as a critical insight into the practical reality of both the neoliberal American society and the neoliberal global order, an insight compatible with the contemporary scholarly discourses on the same reality.

DepositNeoliberalism and it Impact on Post-9/11 American Poetry

My article examines two post-9/11 American poems – “Towers Down” by Clive Matson and “When the World As We Knew It Ended” by Joy Harjo – against the background of neoliberalism in American society and the neoliberal global order. Neoliberalism both as a concept — which basically denotes open markets, free trade and minimal government interference into the economy and the society of a nation – and as a social actualization emerged in 1980s and lasted up to the 1990s, but was increasingly threatened by a succession of socio-political and economic forces like the terrorist attacks of 9/11, Arab Spring, Occupy movements and its European counterparts. Placing the two poems within this socio-political and economic context this article conducts a nuanced analysis of those two poems, making the point that while the first poem considers neoliberalism as a tool of economic exploitation mired in imperialism, the second one views neoliberalism and its physical manifestation, the Twin Towers, as a naive prelapsarian dream which is shattered by post-9/11 disillusionment. Moreover, while the first poem regards the destruction of the Twin Towers as the symbolic demise of neoliberalism, the second one proposes a creative transmutation of the pain of disillusionment. My article aims to demonstrate the point that each of the foregoing poems could be read both as an aesthetic object and as a critical insight into the practical reality of both the neoliberal American society and the neoliberal global order, an insight compatible with the contemporary scholarly discourses on the same reality.

DepositPersonal and Political: A Micro-history of the “Red Column” Collective Farm, 1935-36

This article investigates the confluence of personal interests and official policy on collective farms in the mid-1930s, a period that has received far less scholarly attention than the collectivization drive. The current historiography on collective farmers’ relationship with the state is one-sided, presenting peasants either as passive victims of or idealized resistors to state policies. Both views minimize the complex realities that governed the everyday lives of collective farmers for whom state policies often were secondary to local concerns. This paper, which draws upon rich archival materials in Kirov Krai, employs a micro-historical approach to study the struggle to remove the chairman of the “Red Column” collective farm in Kirov Krai in 1935- 36. It demonstrates that local and personal issues (family ties, grudges, and personality traits) had more influence on how collective farmers reacted to state campaigns and investigations than did official state policy and rhetoric. The chairman’s rude and arrogant behavior, mistreatment of the collective farmers, and flaunting of material goods led to his downfall. But to strengthen their arguments, his opponents accused him of associating with kulaks and white guardists. The chairman and his supporters struck back, alleging that his detractors were themselves white guardists and kulaks, who sought revenge for having been expelled from the collective farm. Such a micro-historical approach reveals the importance of popular opinion, attitudes, and behavior on collective farms and the level of control that collective farmers had over shaping the implementation of state policies. This paper enables one to appreciate that peasants knew well how to manipulate official labels, such as kulak or class enemy, as weapons to achieve goals of local and personal importance. It enriches the historiography by offering a different way to appreciate peasant attitudes and behavior, and collective farm life in the mid-1930s.

DepositModerate Concentrations of TNF- α Induce BMP-2 Expression in Endothelial Cells

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is best-known as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in many cardiovascular diseases. During vascular calcification, TNF-α has been reported topromote osteogenic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In contrast, there is alack of data reporting the osteoinductive effect of TNF-α in endothelial cell. In this study, experiments were performed to investigate and determine theoptimum dose of TNF-α that induces expression of the osteoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) in endothelial cells. Human vein endothelial cells were treated with TNF-α at doses of 0, 2, 5, 10, or 20 ng/mL for2, 8, or 24 h time intervals. BMP-2 cell expression was evaluated using immunocytochemistry staining by calculating the percentage of BMP-2 positive cells. Apoptosiswas determined by counting the number ofpyknoticcells. In this study, we found that the optimum dose of TNF-α thatinduces BMP-2 expression in endothelial cells was 5 ng/mL at the 8 h time interval. Lower (2 ng/mL) orhigher (10 and 20 ng/mL) concentrations of TNF-α had minimal effects on BMP-2 expression. Moreover, higher concentrations of TNF-α treatment (10 and 20 ng/ml) at8 h and 24 h increased the presence of pyknotic endothelial cells, which represent thefinal stage of apoptosis.

DepositUnderstanding Unlikeness

Here is just some of what we are given to understand John Chamberlain’s art as being like: car wrecks and dancers, artichokes and mummies and giant phalluses, drapery, a football player, ornaments for an immense Christmas tree and monstrous jungle-gyms, a sucked egg, and Titans beside themselves with rage. Next, a long list of the art-historical movements that his pieces have brought to mind: the baroque and rococo, neoclassicism, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism, both Abstract Expressionism and Pop, and also Minimalism and Process art. And, lastly, a very long list of the artists whose works Chamberlain’s are said to resemble in one way or another: Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Peter Paul Rubens, Auguste Rodin, Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline and Willem de Kooning, David Smith, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, Mark di Suvero, and Donald Judd. Chamberlain himself has taken part in this frenzy as well. He mentioned in various instances how his objects are like jigsaw puzzles, like a girl he used to know in Philadelphia, like lasagna, and like sex. And why not? Certainly some will judge this breathtaking list of likenesses as ample proof of artistic achievement, a body of work so wide open that evidently this or that piece corresponds with about anything you could want it to. But one might also pause to marvel at the forced associations across fifty years of writing on Chamberlain’s art and wonder why we cannot get over trying to figure out what his creations remind us of, what they evoke, what they are similar to. We risk missing all that is new in the work when we cast about for likenesses to everything we already know.

DepositUsing ancestral state reconstruction methods for onomasiological reconstruction in multilingual word lists

Current efforts in computational historical linguistics are predominantly concerned with phylogenetic inference. Methods for ancestral state reconstruction have only been applied sporadically. In contrast to phylogenetic algorithms, automatic reconstruction methods presuppose phylogenetic information in order to explain what has evolved when and where. Here we report a pilot study exploring how well automatic methods for ancestral state reconstruction perform in the task of onomasiological reconstruction in multilingual word lists, where algorithms are used to infer how the words evolved along a given phylogeny, and reconstruct which cognate classes were used to express a given meaning in the ancestral languages. Comparing three different methods, Maximum Parsimony, Minimal Lateral Networks, and Maximum Likeli- hood on three different test sets (Indo-European, Austronesian, Chinese) using binary and multi-state coding of the data as well as single and sampled phylogenies, we find that Maximum Likelihood largely outperforms the other methods. At the same time, however, the general performance was disappointingly low, ranging between 0.66 (Chinese) and 0.79 (Austronesian) for the F-Scores. A closer linguistic evaluation of the reconstructions proposed by the best method and the reconstructions given in the gold standards revealed that the majority of the cases where the algorithms failed can be attributed to problems of independent semantic shift (homoplasy), to morphological processes in lexical change, and to wrong reconstructions in the independently created test sets that we employed.

DepositPractice makes perfect? Practicing veterinarians’ information seeking behaviour and information use: implications for information provision

A random sample of UK veterinary practitioners was surveyed to identify key issues in veterinary information use (IU) and information seeking behaviour (ISB) and the corresponding implications for the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Wellcome Library (RCVSWL). Interviews were also conducted with a small cross-section of the sample population to explore in more detail particular areas and attitudes with regard to information provision. It was found that despite a significant use of Internet and email, journals, textbooks and conferences were the three favourite source types, although email was the preferred communication medium. Variations in information source use by practice size and type and information type were also considered. Books were the emergency source of choice while journals were used for current awareness. ISB comprised just under a third of all computer activities and was generally a solo and private activity. Time and cost factors were regarded as the main barriers to effective ISB while currency was the primary problem associated with information sources. Credibility of source was the main criterion used when evaluating information… Specific library findings included very low use of online library catalogues and minimal email contact between practitioners and librarians. A greater proportion of respondents used the Net for veterinary information than used a veterinary library, despite the former’s inherent problems. The majority of library users and non-users wanted enhanced access via the Internet. It was found from the interviews that while publicity and promotion of existing services would enhance library awareness, online access to full-text journals would be the main service requirement for the future… Recent RCVSWL activities and possible service models were discussed in the light of the findings and specific recommendations for action proposed.