This paper deals with the identification of the microscope used by the Italian physician and naturalist Antonio Vallisneri (1661-1730) during his research activity. The investigation was structured in three phases: a) a first text analysis on published and manuscript sources, looking for information about the microscope(s) used by Vallisneri; b) an hypothesis was put forward based on the chronological and descriptive compliance between the examined writings and the technological level achieved by eighteenth- and seventeenth-century microscopy; c) an experimental verification of the hypothesis, through the reproduction of observations reported by Vallisneri, using similar material and instrument. The letters written by Vallisneri to Louis Bourguet and Jacopo Riccati between 1713 and 1721 were the most important documents for the purpose of this research. They concern the observation of spermatozoa in rabbit semen. In these letters Vallisneri mentioned some «English microscopes with eight lens orders» that fitted the description of the screw-barrel microscope by the English craftsman James Wilson in three pamphlets issued between 1702 and 1711. Original copies of Wilson-type microscopes are preserved at the Musée d’Histoire des Sciences of Geneva, where the possibility of manipulating them allowed the experimental observation of the rabbit semen. Among the instruments preserved there, inventory no. 466 was mainly considered: a Wilson-type microscope on a brass stand – a change introduced by John Cuff in the early 1740s. The spermatic cells were clearly observed through three lenses, with magnifications ranging from 120 X to 300 X. Though it must be pointed out that these lenses were not standardised, this result reasonably confirmed the hypothesis, e.g. the microscope used by Vallisneri for the observation of spermatozoa was a screw-barrel instrument made by James Wilson, probably in the first decade of the eighteenth century.
Se suele señalar a 1385 como uno de los momentos de mayor incertidumbre política, social y económica no solo del medievo peninsular, sino prácticamente de toda la historia de España. En aquella precisa fecha, al factor estructural de lo que se ha venido en llamar la crisis del modelo de producción feudal, se le añadió un factor coyuntural bien conocido: el enfrentamiento bélico entre Castilla y Portugal. Este evento, que, como es sabido, se acabó por decidir en Aljubarrota entre el 13 y el 14 de agosto de 1385, se convirtió inmediatamente en elemento básico de la identidad nacional portuguesa, como ya fue desgranado por Arnaut, o Duarte, entre otros. A estos estudios clásicos sobre Aljubarrota, debemos sumar ahora varias aproximaciones más actuales sobre mito y realidad asociados a esta construcción identitaria, como los de Ventura, la biografía de Coelho sobre João I, y la colección de ensayos editada por Monteiro. Sin embargo, en este trabajo me alejaré conscientemente de la perspectiva portuguesa sobre aquella fecha clave y de los estudios puramente bélicos sobre la jornada, no porque no sean interesantes ni relevantes para el tema que me dispongo a tratar –todo lo contrario, de hecho–, sino porque me voy a centrar tan solo en los análisis políticos y culturales realizados por la historiografía del lado castellano del conflicto. Tanto entonces como ahora, la inmensa mayoría de escritos ha mostrado unas conclusiones ciertamente catastróficas respecto a lo mucho que el linaje entronizado en Montiel perdió con ocasión de aquella amarga jornada
Peter Pan helps Rita solve the mystery of a stray puzzle piece. Aldo looks at the clouds and decides to quit. A little girl insists on making everything in her coloring book orange. Eve defies darkness turning past dreams into future memories. 12 Random Words / 12 Palabras al Azar is a bilingual collection of interior vignettes told in both English and Spanish. Each story is a tale of yearning, a fragment of discovery, a treasure. Set in New York, Lima, Buenos Aires, and other cities, these short stories take unexpected turns along the path of remembrance, disappointment, and hope. —- Peter Pan ayuda a Rita a resolver el misterio de una pieza de rompecabezas extraviada. Aldo mira las nubes y decide renunciar. Una niña insiste en que todo debe ser naranja en su libro para colorear. Eva desafía la oscuridad para transformar sus sueños del pasado en recuerdos del futuro. 12 Random Words / 12 Palabras al Azar es una colección de estampas interiores narradas en inglés y en español. Cada cuento es una historia de anhelos, un atisbo de descubrimiento, un tesoro. Ambientadas en New York, Lima, Buenos Aires y otras ciudades, estas narraciones siguen un derrotero inesperado en su camino hacia la memoria, la desilusión y la esperanza. 12 Random Words / 12 Palabras al Azar is a bilingual piece of literature initially being released in English and Spanish. As a linguist and translator, Fabiana Elisa Martínez has created a collection of short stories, which is not only an original piece of literature but also a literary tool for language learning.
Although Scandinavian flint is one of the most important materials used for prehistoric stone tool production in Northern and Central Europe, a conclusive method for securely differentiating between flint sources, geologically bound to northern European chalk formations, has never been achieved. The main problems with traditional approaches concern the oftentimes high similarities of SiO2 raw materials (i.e. chert and flint) on different scales due to similar genetic conditions and higher intra- than inter-source variation. Conventional chert and flint provenance studies chiefly concentrate on visual, petrographic or geochemical investigations. Hence, attempts to generate characteristic fingerprints of particular chert raw materials were in most cases unsatisfying. Here we show that the Multi Layered Chert Sourcing Approach (MLA) achieves a clear differentiation between primary sources of Scandinavian flint. The MLA combines visual comparative studies, stereo-microscopic analyses of microfossil inclusions, geochemical trace element analyses applying LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and statistical analyses through CODA (Compositional Data Analysis). For archaeologists, provenance studies are the gateway to advance interpretations of economic behavior expressed in resource management strategies entailing the procurement, use and distribution of lithic raw materials. We demonstrate the relevance of our results for archaeological materials in a case study in which we were able to differentiate between Scandinavian flint sources and establish the provenance of historic ballast flint from a shipwreck found near Kristiansand close to the shore of southern Norway from a beach source in Northern Jutland, the Vigsø Bay.
Current efforts in computational historical linguistics are predominantly concerned with phylogenetic inference. Methods for ancestral state reconstruction have only been applied sporadically. In contrast to phylogenetic algorithms, automatic reconstruction methods presuppose phylogenetic information in order to explain what has evolved when and where. Here we report a pilot study exploring how well automatic methods for ancestral state reconstruction perform in the task of onomasiological reconstruction in multilingual word lists, where algorithms are used to infer how the words evolved along a given phylogeny, and reconstruct which cognate classes were used to express a given meaning in the ancestral languages. Comparing three different methods, Maximum Parsimony, Minimal Lateral Networks, and Maximum Likeli- hood on three different test sets (Indo-European, Austronesian, Chinese) using binary and multi-state coding of the data as well as single and sampled phylogenies, we find that Maximum Likelihood largely outperforms the other methods. At the same time, however, the general performance was disappointingly low, ranging between 0.66 (Chinese) and 0.79 (Austronesian) for the F-Scores. A closer linguistic evaluation of the reconstructions proposed by the best method and the reconstructions given in the gold standards revealed that the majority of the cases where the algorithms failed can be attributed to problems of independent semantic shift (homoplasy), to morphological processes in lexical change, and to wrong reconstructions in the independently created test sets that we employed.
The article presents the concept of the project aimed at studying the influence of W. Shakespeare’s oeuvre on contemporary Russian culture. A special attention is paid to the analysis of specific features in the Russian reception of the Shakespearean legacy in the 20th–21st centuries in the interrelation of the national and global. In this respect, it is quite significant how people celebrated the anniversaries of Shakespeare’s birth in Russia in 1864, 1914, 1939, 1964 and 2014. These observations give an opportunity to present the Russian Shakespearean sphere in its historical perspective and to draw some conclusions on the role of Shakespeare in contemporary culture of Russia. The author considers some tendencies typical for the appropriation of Shakespeare’s works in Russia in the 20th–21st centuries. В статье представлена концепция проекта, задачей которого является изучение влияния творчества У. Шекспира на современную русскую культуру. Особое внимание уделено анализу специфики отечественной рецепции шекспировского наследия в XX–XXI вв. во взаимосвязи национального и глобального. В этом отношении небезынтересно проследить, как в России отмечались шекспировские юбилеи в 1864, 1914, 1939, 1964 и 2014 г. Эти сведения дают возможность представить отечественную шекспиросферу в исторической перспективе и сделать некоторые выводы о роли Шекспира в современной культуре России. Автор рассматривает некоторые тенденции, характерные для апроприации шекспировского творчества в нашей стране в XX–XXI столетиях.
Hürriyet kavramının anlamı geçmişi ve ilgili kavramlar eşliğinde irdelenmektedir. Müsavat ve uhuvvet kavramlarının tarihi bağlamda hürriyet ile birlikte gündeme geldiği görülmektedir. Dönem öncesinden süregelen adalet talebi daha uzun soluklu bir kavramın güncellenmiş halini teşkil etmektedir. Hürriyet ve adalet kavramlarının nihai hedeflerinden olan meşrutiyet de dönemin anlayışına anlam katmaktadır. Vatan kavramı tüm bu kavramların altında olduğu bir çatı olarak karşımıza çıkmakta ve hürriyetle ilgili kavramları bir çerçeveye sığdırmaya yardımcı olmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Hürriyet, müsavat, uhuvvet, meşrutiyet, vatan Abstract Meaning of the hurriyat (freedom) concept examined together with relevant concepts. It is seen that müsavat (equality) and uhuvvet (brotherhood) concepts come up with hurriyat in the historical context. Ongoing justice demand before the era forms a long lasting updated status. Mashrutiyat (constitutionalism) as one of the ultimate goals of hurriyat and adalet (justice) concepts, give meaning to understanding of the era. Concept of vatan (homeland) confronts as a roof that all of these concepts underlie and gather round the concepts related to hurriyat, helping to take them into a frame. Keywords: Hurriyat, Müsavat, Uhuvvet, Mashrutiyat, Vatan SON DÖNEM OSMANLI DÜŞÜNCESİNDE HÜRRİYET KAVRAMININ ÇÖZÜMLEMESİ Analysis of the Hurriyat Concept at the Late Ottoman Though. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319182473_SON_DONEM_OSMANLI_DUSUNCESINDE_HURRIYET_KAVRAMININ_COZUMLEMESI_Analysis_of_the_Hurriyat_Concept_at_the_Late_Ottoman_Though [accessed Aug 20, 2017].
Here is just some of what we are given to understand John Chamberlain’s art as being like: car wrecks and dancers, artichokes and mummies and giant phalluses, drapery, a football player, ornaments for an immense Christmas tree and monstrous jungle-gyms, a sucked egg, and Titans beside themselves with rage. Next, a long list of the art-historical movements that his pieces have brought to mind: the baroque and rococo, neoclassicism, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism, both Abstract Expressionism and Pop, and also Minimalism and Process art. And, lastly, a very long list of the artists whose works Chamberlain’s are said to resemble in one way or another: Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Peter Paul Rubens, Auguste Rodin, Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline and Willem de Kooning, David Smith, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, Mark di Suvero, and Donald Judd. Chamberlain himself has taken part in this frenzy as well. He mentioned in various instances how his objects are like jigsaw puzzles, like a girl he used to know in Philadelphia, like lasagna, and like sex. And why not? Certainly some will judge this breathtaking list of likenesses as ample proof of artistic achievement, a body of work so wide open that evidently this or that piece corresponds with about anything you could want it to. But one might also pause to marvel at the forced associations across fifty years of writing on Chamberlain’s art and wonder why we cannot get over trying to figure out what his creations remind us of, what they evoke, what they are similar to. We risk missing all that is new in the work when we cast about for likenesses to everything we already know.
On September 15, 2012, some Punjabi book publishers and editors1 were arrested under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act for reprinting some works of the 20th century Punjabi poet and kavishar Babu Rajab Ali that allegedly contain derogatory caste names for the Dalits. The police had arrested these publishers suspecting the books could cause unrest in the state and could lead to rioting or division among communities. While one of the publishers chose not to circulate the books in the market after the controversy, in the subsequent editions of two other publications, the texts of Rajab Ali were changed, sanitized of the alleged caste names included in them, with terms more acceptable in contemporary times. We examine the deeper reasons behind this zealous and reactionary response to reprinting texts written more than seventy years ago. It becomes imperative to analyse if it is correct to reproduce old poetical texts through the process of “cleansing” and if the textual cleansing subverts the original meaning the poet wanted to convey, in his particular spatial-temporal context. The political, social and cultural dynamics behind the caste-based and censor-filtered purging of text reproduction need to be probed into, along with the role of state agencies and institutional structures that allow it to exist. Should the publishers be held responsible for the content they publish? Should the debate of cleansing/sanitizing, when understood in the context of the prevalent caste relations in Punjab, be reduced only to the notions of ‘freedom of expression’ and ‘freedom of individual’? Further, we analyse the significance of Rajab Ali’s writing on its own merit, while also demonstrating and critiquing his proclivity to perpetuate existing caste norms. These are the questions this paper seeks to address, while also conveying how poetry can be used as an alternative historical source for early-twentieth century Malwa.
Analyzing abolitionist and neoabolitionist girlhood stories of racial pairing from the nineteenth and twenty-first centuries, this essay shows how children’s literature about interracial friendship represents differently racialized experiences of and responses to slavery. The article presents fiction by women writers such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and Lydia Maria Child alongside Sarah Masters Buckey and Denise Lewis Patrick’s American Girl historical fiction series about Cécile and Marie-Grace in order to show how such literature stages free children’s relationships to slavery through their own racialization. While nineteenth-century abolitionist children’s literature models how to present slavery and racism to free, white children, the American Girl series extends this model to consider how African American children’s literature considers black child readers and black children’s specialized knowledge about racism. The model of narration and scripting of reading practices in the Cécile and Marie-Grace stories promote cross-racial identification, showing how, because children read from already racialized perspectives that literature also informs, both black and white children might benefit from seeing alternating perspectives of slavery represented. By further re-thinking the boundaries of who might identify with other enslaved or enslavable child characters, we might unveil more radical antiracist potential in this children’s literature.