DepositThe Nationalist Movement and the Struggle for Freedom in Puerto Rico’s Olympic Sport.

This chapter examines the process by which Puerto Rican nationalists engaged with the Olympic Movement in their struggle for decolonization. Sotomayor shows not only shifting meanings of colonial Olympic sport for nationalists, but, more generally, that the Olympic Movement has been used and serves as a platform to negotiate nationalism and decolonization. Thus, this chapter displays the intricacies of colonialism, nonsovereign nationalism, and decolonization struggles within the Olympic Movement in the Caribbean.

DepositPerceived Brand Equity in Professional Sports Teams: A Zimbabwean Consumers’Perspective

The study explored the antecedents, dimensions and market consequences of the brand perceptions held by Zimbabwean consumers for professional football teams and developed a strategic brand management framework that can bridge existing practical and theoretical knowledge gaps in the management of sports brands in the country. The study was grounded on the exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. The findings from the qualitative phase were used to generate data collection instruments for questionnaire survey and assess the overall prevalence of the variables that were identified in the first phase from a large number of users of football brands. The NVivo 10 and SPSS version 21.0 software packages were used to analyze qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. The study identified and classified the antecedents of brand perceptions held by Zimbabwean consumers for professional sports teams into consumption experience-trigged antecedents, significant others-triggered antecedents and sports entity-triggered antecedents. The results show that fan loyalty trends for local professional football teams function in tandem with the ethnic identity systems in the country. However, the globalization of football has led to the dilution of national particularities in the game. The findings support the conceptualization of perceived brand equity in as an aggregate of brand awareness and brand associations. Zimbabwean consumers of football brands perceived European professional football teams as the market leaders in their brand category .South African professional football teams were ranked second and Zimbabwean professional football teams were positioned at the bottom of the brand leadership rankings in the minds of Zimbabwean consumers of football brands. The study illustrated how the brand the perceptions held by Zimbabwean corporate and individual consumers for professional football teams have generated negative and positive market consequences.

MemberKara Jackman

During the day, I work as an archivist at a University located in Massachusetts.  By night, I blog for, and am blog editor for Children’s Craniofacial Association. My work has appeared in a number of regional, Massachusetts newspapers, non-profit newsletters, and local sports magazines, including Sports of Boston, LLC, Duxbury Clipper, CityStream websites, among others.

MemberJessica Carniel

…Clio, 2016.

“Of Nerds and Men: Dimensions and Discourses of Masculinity in Nerds FC,” in The Sports Documentary: Critical Essays, eds Zachary Inglis and David Sutera, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Pres…

Jessica Carniel is a Senior Lecturer in Humanities at the University of Southern Queensland, where she teaches on the history of Western ideas, ethics and human rights, and global migration. Her broad research interests include Australian and global immigration, cosmopolitan cultures, sporting communities and identities, cultural studies and gender studies. She has published widely on gender and ethnic identities in literature and sports cultures in multicultural Australia. Her study of Eurovision in Australia will be published by Palgrave Macmillan in late 2018.

MemberAntonio Sotomayor


Sotomayor, Antonio. The Sovereign Colony: Olympic Sport, National Identity, and International Politics in Puerto Rico. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 2016. Winner of SALALM&#8…

I am an Associate Professor, Historian, and Librarian of Latin American and Caribbean Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. I also hold faculty appointments in the Departments of Spanish and Portuguese, and Recreation, Sport, and Tourism, and I am an affiliated faculty at the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Illinois. My research revolves around issues of idenity/cultural politics, nationalism, international relations, religion, hegemony, and U.S.-Latin American relations through the window of sport. My book, The Sovereign Colony: Olympic Sport, National Identity, and International Politics in Puerto Rico, studies the role that the Olympic movement played in Puerto Rican construction of national identity, in the development of an autonomist political culture, and in Puerto Rican agency in international politics. It was the recipient of the 2017 José Toribio Medina Award, from the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (SALALM), the premier international association for Latin American librarians. My work appears in journals such as Journal of Sport HistoryCaribbean Studies, The Latin Americanist, The Americas, and The International Journal of the History of Sport. Currently, I am co-editor of Olimpismo The Olympic Movement in the Making of Latin America and the Caribbean (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2020). I am working on a book project on religion, imperialism, and sport through the YMCA in Puerto Rico and Cuba (1898-1950s). As a librarian, I direct the Latin American and Caribbean Studies collection at the University of Illinois. With close to one million volumes and numerous specialized databases, the collection is considered among the best in the nation. I oversee all aspects related to Latin America and the Caribbean at the University Library including collection development, reference, instruction, serial management, and offer specialized research consultations. My main interests at the library include in depth research consultations, collection development, and liaison work with the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and the Lemann Institute for Brazilian Studies. I am the director of the Digital Library of Latin American and Caribbean Sport (DLLACS), and on the Conde de Montemar Letters, a portal that provides open access to a set of some 300 unique letters belonging to the family of the Count of Montemar between Lima and Madrid during the years of 1761 and 1799.

GroupGlobal & Transnational Studies

Open to anyone with an interest in historical and contemporary movements of people, ideas, cultures and goods across boundaries. The aim is to encourage interdisciplinary conversations on a wide range of topics of transnational and global significance. These may include but are not necessarily limited to migration, trade, development, empire, consumption, food, sport, languages, literature, […]

Deposit“Rough! Tough! Real Stuff!”: Music, Militarism, and Masculinity in American College Football

Robert Kennedy proclaimed, “Except for war, there is nothing in American life which trains a boy better for life than football.” While the sport’s governing bodies are presently distancing themselves from violent connections—altering rules in order to make the game safer for players—football culture remains firmly connected with militarism. This article explores the role of music in communicating a martial brand of masculinity through two lenses of critical critique from communication theory. One, Sue Curry Jansen’s concept “warspeak” describes the use of military language in sporting contexts, and this essay extends this concept to “warsound.” Two, Paul Smith’s theory of the progression of the masculine form in Clint Eastwood’s films. These theories elucidate what Charles Garrett referred to as the “masculinist, militarist tropes that permeate sports music” in the specific context of college football. This article posits that the stadium soundscape of present-day college football reinforces a militarized, violent masculinity by examining historic and cinematic associations with musical selections encountered in modern college football stadiums. This paper is bolstered by the ethnographic study of sixteen football game sites collected across the United States in 2013, including schools representing the nation’s five largest athletic conferences. These case studies demonstrate the ubiquitous association between militarism and masculinity in college football culture nationwide. These case studies are also supported by interviews with musical agents at each institution, such as band directors and audio/video technicians, who provide insight into the rationale behind college football’s soundscape.