This paper studies the creation, circulation, and reception of two groups of photographs of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s iconic Farnsworth House, both taken by Hedrich Blessing. The first set, produced for a 1951 Architectural Forum magazine cover story, features curtains carefully arranged according to the architect’s preferences; the Museum of Modern Art commissioned the second set in 1985 for a major Mies retrospective exhibition specifically because the show’s influential curator, Arthur Drexler, believed the curtains obscured Mies’s so-called “glass box” design. Through comparative object-based analysis and in-depth exploration of the images’ discursive context, “Curtained Walls” finds both groups of photographs to be quasi-fictional portraits that are valuable today for how they engaged various modernist concerns rather than as reliable architectural representations. Ultimately, this paper complicates the history of a building famous for being minimal—and questions whether these photographs helped direct critical opinion of the Farnsworth House toward a transparency-focused narrative and away from other potential interpretations.
Drawing on ethnographic research on Muslim devotional practices in Mauritius, this chapter investigates material aspects of discourse circulation in religious settings, above all vocalization and transduction. I pay attention to the role Mauritian Muslims ascribe to sound reproduction technologies in safeguarding what they regard as the authentic replication of devotional poetry performances in ritual settings. In the particular context at hand, a certain aspect of the materiality of language, the qualities of vocalization, helps to minimize the gap between authoritative source and present performance. This process unfolds through transduction, which generates the sonic presence of the reciting voice in another setting through sound reproduction. The sonic presence thus generated becomes the occasion for beliefs on technology according to which the latter is able to faithfully “store” linguistic signs with their full spectrum of material qualities. In treating sound reproduction technologies accordingly, their users are guided by the assumption that sound reproduction, if working properly, is a medium that erases its own traces, despite the complex sequence of transductions it actually entails.
Work on further developing the IT Systems both in terms of on-site computing and database development work continued during the build up to the season and for a short period on site. During the close season since 2003 documents were prepared to put to IBM, the Project’s IT Sponsor, containing fairly detailed reports on the problems faced with the on-site networking (in terms of power, aging PC equipment, etc) and a wish list of equipment required by the project in order to continue to function properly on site. IBM kindly met these requests by providing 2 new servers (1 for on site work and 1 to assist project work from the Cambridge office) and 5 new laptop computers. The on-site technical work consisted of setting up the existing project equipment, with some minor configuration changes to prepare for the deployment of the new database systems and to provide some minor network enhancements. As a stop-gap measure pending the delivery of the new equipment from IBM the new central database server software (Microsoft SQL Server 2000) was installed on the existing server and the first of the new, centrally managed applications, was made available to site staff. Upon delivery of the IBM equipment work was undertaken to set up and configure the new hardware and then to perform a mass migration of all data files and databases onto the new server. This work was undertaken with minimal downtime to site staff.
For several decades, scientists have been voicing concern over “planetary protection” (PP). To an outside observer unaware of this term’s nuances, the phrase could easily be taken to include problems related to environmentalism, such as preservation of the natural landscape and natural resources. Instead, the term, as it is used today, refers only to practices intended to minimize biological contamination – of the Earth by extraterrestrial life, and vice-versa. The emergence, on the one hand, of private industries interested in exploiting space-based resources (e.g., mining the Moon for 3He) and the growth, on the other hand, of broad public support for environmental protections here on Earth, together suggest that the time is ripe to re-consider the full range of possible impacts caused by human activity in space be-fore irreparable harm is caused to the cosmic environment. This paper aims to unpack the concept of planetary protection, identifying its primary limitations and addressing these shortcomings through cross-fertilization with literature concerning sustainable development . The final result is a proposal for a broader definition of PP. This reconceptualization is useful for framing new space policies, strategic plans, and programs in a manner that anticipates the future challenges of space exploration within a context of competing interests.
Anna E. Kijas is Head of Lilly Music Library at Tufts University. Her academic training includes master’s degrees in library and information science from Simmons College, music with a concentration in musicology from Tufts University, as well as a bachelor of arts in music literature and performance from Northeastern University. Anna is interested in the exploration and application of digital humanities tools and methods in historical (music) research, and in the application of standards, including TEI and MEI, for open access research and publishing, and the use of minimal computing. She also works on nineteenth century music topics with a focus on gender, women, and performance criticism and reception. She recently published a book on The Life and Music of Teresa Carreño (1853-1917): A Guide to Research, and has a digital project, which documents Carreño’s performance career with primary source materials, metadata, and transcriptions, as well as explores her performances and texts through data analysis and visualization tools. View Anna’s full C.V.
Current efforts in computational historical linguistics are predominantly concerned with phylogenetic inference. Methods for ancestral state reconstruction have only been applied sporadically. In contrast to phylogenetic algorithms, automatic reconstruction methods presuppose phylogenetic information in order to explain what has evolved when and where. Here we report a pilot study exploring how well automatic methods for ancestral state reconstruction perform in the task of onomasiological reconstruction in multilingual word lists, where algorithms are used to infer how the words evolved along a given phylogeny, and reconstruct which cognate classes were used to express a given meaning in the ancestral languages. Comparing three different methods, Maximum Parsimony, Minimal Lateral Networks, and Maximum Likeli- hood on three different test sets (Indo-European, Austronesian, Chinese) using binary and multi-state coding of the data as well as single and sampled phylogenies, we find that Maximum Likelihood largely outperforms the other methods. At the same time, however, the general performance was disappointingly low, ranging between 0.66 (Chinese) and 0.79 (Austronesian) for the F-Scores. A closer linguistic evaluation of the reconstructions proposed by the best method and the reconstructions given in the gold standards revealed that the majority of the cases where the algorithms failed can be attributed to problems of independent semantic shift (homoplasy), to morphological processes in lexical change, and to wrong reconstructions in the independently created test sets that we employed.
This article investigates the confluence of personal interests and official policy on collective farms in the mid-1930s, a period that has received far less scholarly attention than the collectivization drive. The current historiography on collective farmers’ relationship with the state is one-sided, presenting peasants either as passive victims of or idealized resistors to state policies. Both views minimize the complex realities that governed the everyday lives of collective farmers for whom state policies often were secondary to local concerns. This paper, which draws upon rich archival materials in Kirov Krai, employs a micro-historical approach to study the struggle to remove the chairman of the “Red Column” collective farm in Kirov Krai in 1935- 36. It demonstrates that local and personal issues (family ties, grudges, and personality traits) had more influence on how collective farmers reacted to state campaigns and investigations than did official state policy and rhetoric. The chairman’s rude and arrogant behavior, mistreatment of the collective farmers, and flaunting of material goods led to his downfall. But to strengthen their arguments, his opponents accused him of associating with kulaks and white guardists. The chairman and his supporters struck back, alleging that his detractors were themselves white guardists and kulaks, who sought revenge for having been expelled from the collective farm. Such a micro-historical approach reveals the importance of popular opinion, attitudes, and behavior on collective farms and the level of control that collective farmers had over shaping the implementation of state policies. This paper enables one to appreciate that peasants knew well how to manipulate official labels, such as kulak or class enemy, as weapons to achieve goals of local and personal importance. It enriches the historiography by offering a different way to appreciate peasant attitudes and behavior, and collective farm life in the mid-1930s.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is best-known as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in many cardiovascular diseases. During vascular calcification, TNF-α has been reported topromote osteogenic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In contrast, there is alack of data reporting the osteoinductive effect of TNF-α in endothelial cell. In this study, experiments were performed to investigate and determine theoptimum dose of TNF-α that induces expression of the osteoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) in endothelial cells. Human vein endothelial cells were treated with TNF-α at doses of 0, 2, 5, 10, or 20 ng/mL for2, 8, or 24 h time intervals. BMP-2 cell expression was evaluated using immunocytochemistry staining by calculating the percentage of BMP-2 positive cells. Apoptosiswas determined by counting the number ofpyknoticcells. In this study, we found that the optimum dose of TNF-α thatinduces BMP-2 expression in endothelial cells was 5 ng/mL at the 8 h time interval. Lower (2 ng/mL) orhigher (10 and 20 ng/mL) concentrations of TNF-α had minimal effects on BMP-2 expression. Moreover, higher concentrations of TNF-α treatment (10 and 20 ng/ml) at8 h and 24 h increased the presence of pyknotic endothelial cells, which represent thefinal stage of apoptosis.
Here is just some of what we are given to understand John Chamberlain’s art as being like: car wrecks and dancers, artichokes and mummies and giant phalluses, drapery, a football player, ornaments for an immense Christmas tree and monstrous jungle-gyms, a sucked egg, and Titans beside themselves with rage. Next, a long list of the art-historical movements that his pieces have brought to mind: the baroque and rococo, neoclassicism, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism, both Abstract Expressionism and Pop, and also Minimalism and Process art. And, lastly, a very long list of the artists whose works Chamberlain’s are said to resemble in one way or another: Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Peter Paul Rubens, Auguste Rodin, Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline and Willem de Kooning, David Smith, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, Mark di Suvero, and Donald Judd. Chamberlain himself has taken part in this frenzy as well. He mentioned in various instances how his objects are like jigsaw puzzles, like a girl he used to know in Philadelphia, like lasagna, and like sex. And why not? Certainly some will judge this breathtaking list of likenesses as ample proof of artistic achievement, a body of work so wide open that evidently this or that piece corresponds with about anything you could want it to. But one might also pause to marvel at the forced associations across fifty years of writing on Chamberlain’s art and wonder why we cannot get over trying to figure out what his creations remind us of, what they evoke, what they are similar to. We risk missing all that is new in the work when we cast about for likenesses to everything we already know.
A random sample of UK veterinary practitioners was surveyed to identify key issues in veterinary information use (IU) and information seeking behaviour (ISB) and the corresponding implications for the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Wellcome Library (RCVSWL). Interviews were also conducted with a small cross-section of the sample population to explore in more detail particular areas and attitudes with regard to information provision. It was found that despite a significant use of Internet and email, journals, textbooks and conferences were the three favourite source types, although email was the preferred communication medium. Variations in information source use by practice size and type and information type were also considered. Books were the emergency source of choice while journals were used for current awareness. ISB comprised just under a third of all computer activities and was generally a solo and private activity. Time and cost factors were regarded as the main barriers to effective ISB while currency was the primary problem associated with information sources. Credibility of source was the main criterion used when evaluating information… Specific library findings included very low use of online library catalogues and minimal email contact between practitioners and librarians. A greater proportion of respondents used the Net for veterinary information than used a veterinary library, despite the former’s inherent problems. The majority of library users and non-users wanted enhanced access via the Internet. It was found from the interviews that while publicity and promotion of existing services would enhance library awareness, online access to full-text journals would be the main service requirement for the future… Recent RCVSWL activities and possible service models were discussed in the light of the findings and specific recommendations for action proposed.