For several decades, scientists have been voicing concern over “planetary protection” (PP). To an outside observer unaware of this term’s nuances, the phrase could easily be taken to include problems related to environmentalism, such as preservation of the natural landscape and natural resources. Instead, the term, as it is used today, refers only to practices intended to minimize biological contamination – of the Earth by extraterrestrial life, and vice-versa. The emergence, on the one hand, of private industries interested in exploiting space-based resources (e.g., mining the Moon for 3He) and the growth, on the other hand, of broad public support for environmental protections here on Earth, together suggest that the time is ripe to re-consider the full range of possible impacts caused by human activity in space be-fore irreparable harm is caused to the cosmic environment. This paper aims to unpack the concept of planetary protection, identifying its primary limitations and addressing these shortcomings through cross-fertilization with literature concerning sustainable development . The final result is a proposal for a broader definition of PP. This reconceptualization is useful for framing new space policies, strategic plans, and programs in a manner that anticipates the future challenges of space exploration within a context of competing interests.
Current efforts in computational historical linguistics are predominantly concerned with phylogenetic inference. Methods for ancestral state reconstruction have only been applied sporadically. In contrast to phylogenetic algorithms, automatic reconstruction methods presuppose phylogenetic information in order to explain what has evolved when and where. Here we report a pilot study exploring how well automatic methods for ancestral state reconstruction perform in the task of onomasiological reconstruction in multilingual word lists, where algorithms are used to infer how the words evolved along a given phylogeny, and reconstruct which cognate classes were used to express a given meaning in the ancestral languages. Comparing three different methods, Maximum Parsimony, Minimal Lateral Networks, and Maximum Likeli- hood on three different test sets (Indo-European, Austronesian, Chinese) using binary and multi-state coding of the data as well as single and sampled phylogenies, we find that Maximum Likelihood largely outperforms the other methods. At the same time, however, the general performance was disappointingly low, ranging between 0.66 (Chinese) and 0.79 (Austronesian) for the F-Scores. A closer linguistic evaluation of the reconstructions proposed by the best method and the reconstructions given in the gold standards revealed that the majority of the cases where the algorithms failed can be attributed to problems of independent semantic shift (homoplasy), to morphological processes in lexical change, and to wrong reconstructions in the independently created test sets that we employed.
In 1968, the pianist John Tilbury and the composer Cornelius Cardew, having built up a great body of experimental music, asked the then-youngest member of the experimental music community, eighteen-year-old Christopher Hobbs, to create a method of disseminating these pieces to other musicians. Hobbs founded the Experimental Music Catalogue (the EMC), which took off so well that by 1971 the EMC was run by a committee consisting of Hobbs, Gavin Bryars and Michael Nyman. The EMC was distinctive as a small publishing initiative in its Anthologies of score collections grouped according to instrument or activity (the Keyboard Anthology, Educational Anthology, Verbal Anthology) and in its insistence that composers kept rights and other decisions regarding their works. From 1969 to the early 1980s, the EMC sent experimental and minimalist music by mail order to an international audience, representing British experimental and systems music worldwide in scores as Brian Eno’s Obscure Records represented it worldwide in sound. Although the EMC mailing address was in London, much of the musical activity from these composers occurred at Leicester Polytechnic (the predecessor of this festival’s host, De Montfort University), where Bryars had founded a music department steeped in the ethos that created the EMC. Indeed, the EMC, revived by Hobbs and Virginia Anderson in 1999 as a web-based publisher and record label, is now based in Leicester. This lecture, the keynote for the festival, shall explore English experimental, minimal and postminimal music as part of the history of the EMC, much of which appeared at the EMC2: Remembering the Experimental Music Catalogue weekend. [VA]
A random sample of UK veterinary practitioners was surveyed to identify key issues in veterinary information use (IU) and information seeking behaviour (ISB) and the corresponding implications for the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Wellcome Library (RCVSWL). Interviews were also conducted with a small cross-section of the sample population to explore in more detail particular areas and attitudes with regard to information provision. It was found that despite a significant use of Internet and email, journals, textbooks and conferences were the three favourite source types, although email was the preferred communication medium. Variations in information source use by practice size and type and information type were also considered. Books were the emergency source of choice while journals were used for current awareness. ISB comprised just under a third of all computer activities and was generally a solo and private activity. Time and cost factors were regarded as the main barriers to effective ISB while currency was the primary problem associated with information sources. Credibility of source was the main criterion used when evaluating information… Specific library findings included very low use of online library catalogues and minimal email contact between practitioners and librarians. A greater proportion of respondents used the Net for veterinary information than used a veterinary library, despite the former’s inherent problems. The majority of library users and non-users wanted enhanced access via the Internet. It was found from the interviews that while publicity and promotion of existing services would enhance library awareness, online access to full-text journals would be the main service requirement for the future… Recent RCVSWL activities and possible service models were discussed in the light of the findings and specific recommendations for action proposed.
Interviewee: Veronica Martin Interviewers: Brenna Venth, Matt McNally, Michael Mirabile, and Patrick McGuckin Date: October 5, 2017 Veronica Martin was born on February 4, 1935 in Cortland, New York to her parents, both whom were Italian immigrants. Veronica’s real name is Marian, however, that is a name that was passed down through her family, so when she became old enough, she asked people to call her Veronica. She was an only child and grew up surrounded by the love of her parents. Growing up in Cortland her entire life, she watched as the city of Cortland blossomed into what it is today, and what was prior. In Cortland, there were multiple stores and minimal restaurants different of how it is today. Her father and mother were both Italian immigrants, while her mother had a harder time assimilating to American society, and struggled to speak English. While her father assimilated rather quickly, he obtained several janitorial jobs for several stores downtown. Growing up during this time Veronica witnessed World War II and the effects it had on society. Food was rationed and many men that worked in the community were sent to war. After many years of Veronica’s father instructing that her mother learn English she attended classes. She then took the test to become a naturalized citizen. Veronica attended St. Mary’s School when she was a child and continued her education in college by attending the Eastman Dental Dispensary. She received her degree as a dental hygienist. After working as a dental hygienist in one of the county schools for a year, she….
Interviewers: Brenna Venth, Matt McNally, Michael Mirabile, and Patrick McGuckin Date: October 5, 2017 Veronica Martin was born on February 4, 1935 in Cortland, New York to her parents, both whom were Italian immigrants. Veronica’s real name is Marian, however, that is a name that was passed down through her family, so when she became old enough, she asked people to call her Veronica. She was an only child and grew up surrounded by the love of her parents. Growing up in Cortland her entire life, she watched as the city of Cortland blossomed into what it is today, and what was prior. In Cortland, there were multiple stores and minimal restaurants different of how it is today. Her father and mother were both Italian immigrants, while her mother had a harder time assimilating to American society, and struggled to speak English. While her father assimilated rather quickly, he obtained several janitorial jobs for several stores downtown. Growing up during this time Veronica witnessed World War II and the effects it had on society. Food was rationed and many men that worked in the community were sent to war. After many years of Veronica’s father instructing that her mother learn English she attended classes. She then took the test to become a naturalized citizen. Veronica attended St. Mary’s School when she was a child and continued her education in college by attending the Eastman Dental Dispensary. She received her degree as a dental hygienist. After working as a dental hygienist in one of the county schools for a year, she went back to school to get her BS in Health Education at SUNY Cortland. In the midst of earning another degree, she met her husband, Richard. They got married in 1961. She had three boys, John and Joseph, who were twins, and her youngest, Thomas, born in 1967. Upon getting her degree there were no health education jobs. She went back to dental hygiene in the Tully and Fabius Schools for six years. Mrs. Martin then worked for the Groton Health…
Interviewee: Dr. James M. Clark Interviewers: Cristina Brea, Alexander Katavolos, Zackary Modine October 10, 2018 Memorial Library, SUNY Cortland Length: 1:14:12 The Interviewee. Dr. James M. Clark was the eighth president of the State University of New York College at Cortland from 1979-1995 and is currently active in various charitable organizations within the community. He continues to be an influential part of the community through his participation and efforts just as when he was president. He spent part of his adolescence in Michigan, later moving to Maine and eventually Cortland, where he currently resides. At the University of Michigan, Dr. Clark was a teaching fellow in French and political science. Earlier, he had served as a teaching assistant in English at Lycée St. Louis in Paris. At the University of Maine, Dr. Clark joined the political science faculty. While on leave at one point, he served as a Fulbright Professor at the Institute Études Politiques, University of Toulouse, France, and eventually became Vice President for Academic Affairs. While he was president at Cortland, Dr. Clark fostered the growth of International Studies Programs in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. The Interviewer(s). Cristina Brea, Alex Katavolos, and Zackary Modine are undergraduate students majoring in history at the State University of New York College at Cortland. This interview is part of Cortland’s 150th year-long history with a focus on Cortland alumni and former faculty being conducted as a project for History 329: “Oral History and Historical Memory” for fall 2018. Description of the Interview. The interview took place in a side room on the third floor of Memorial Library on the campus of SUNY Cortland. The library is on upper campus on the top of the hill. For the interview, we sat at a table with two of us on each side of the table (Alex and Zach, Cristina and Dr. Clark). There were minimal interruptions, and we spoke for an hour and a half.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is best-known as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in many cardiovascular diseases. During vascular calcification, TNF-α has been reported topromote osteogenic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In contrast, there is alack of data reporting the osteoinductive effect of TNF-α in endothelial cell. In this study, experiments were performed to investigate and determine theoptimum dose of TNF-α that induces expression of the osteoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) in endothelial cells. Human vein endothelial cells were treated with TNF-α at doses of 0, 2, 5, 10, or 20 ng/mL for2, 8, or 24 h time intervals. BMP-2 cell expression was evaluated using immunocytochemistry staining by calculating the percentage of BMP-2 positive cells. Apoptosiswas determined by counting the number ofpyknoticcells. In this study, we found that the optimum dose of TNF-α thatinduces BMP-2 expression in endothelial cells was 5 ng/mL at the 8 h time interval. Lower (2 ng/mL) orhigher (10 and 20 ng/mL) concentrations of TNF-α had minimal effects on BMP-2 expression. Moreover, higher concentrations of TNF-α treatment (10 and 20 ng/ml) at8 h and 24 h increased the presence of pyknotic endothelial cells, which represent thefinal stage of apoptosis.
Here is just some of what we are given to understand John Chamberlain’s art as being like: car wrecks and dancers, artichokes and mummies and giant phalluses, drapery, a football player, ornaments for an immense Christmas tree and monstrous jungle-gyms, a sucked egg, and Titans beside themselves with rage. Next, a long list of the art-historical movements that his pieces have brought to mind: the baroque and rococo, neoclassicism, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism, both Abstract Expressionism and Pop, and also Minimalism and Process art. And, lastly, a very long list of the artists whose works Chamberlain’s are said to resemble in one way or another: Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Peter Paul Rubens, Auguste Rodin, Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline and Willem de Kooning, David Smith, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, Mark di Suvero, and Donald Judd. Chamberlain himself has taken part in this frenzy as well. He mentioned in various instances how his objects are like jigsaw puzzles, like a girl he used to know in Philadelphia, like lasagna, and like sex. And why not? Certainly some will judge this breathtaking list of likenesses as ample proof of artistic achievement, a body of work so wide open that evidently this or that piece corresponds with about anything you could want it to. But one might also pause to marvel at the forced associations across fifty years of writing on Chamberlain’s art and wonder why we cannot get over trying to figure out what his creations remind us of, what they evoke, what they are similar to. We risk missing all that is new in the work when we cast about for likenesses to everything we already know.
This article investigates the confluence of personal interests and official policy on collective farms in the mid-1930s, a period that has received far less scholarly attention than the collectivization drive. The current historiography on collective farmers’ relationship with the state is one-sided, presenting peasants either as passive victims of or idealized resistors to state policies. Both views minimize the complex realities that governed the everyday lives of collective farmers for whom state policies often were secondary to local concerns. This paper, which draws upon rich archival materials in Kirov Krai, employs a micro-historical approach to study the struggle to remove the chairman of the “Red Column” collective farm in Kirov Krai in 1935- 36. It demonstrates that local and personal issues (family ties, grudges, and personality traits) had more influence on how collective farmers reacted to state campaigns and investigations than did official state policy and rhetoric. The chairman’s rude and arrogant behavior, mistreatment of the collective farmers, and flaunting of material goods led to his downfall. But to strengthen their arguments, his opponents accused him of associating with kulaks and white guardists. The chairman and his supporters struck back, alleging that his detractors were themselves white guardists and kulaks, who sought revenge for having been expelled from the collective farm. Such a micro-historical approach reveals the importance of popular opinion, attitudes, and behavior on collective farms and the level of control that collective farmers had over shaping the implementation of state policies. This paper enables one to appreciate that peasants knew well how to manipulate official labels, such as kulak or class enemy, as weapons to achieve goals of local and personal importance. It enriches the historiography by offering a different way to appreciate peasant attitudes and behavior, and collective farm life in the mid-1930s.