This essay examines what the paradigm of ‘globalization’ can tell us about the Achaemenid Persian Empire (c. 550-330 BCE).
Sepharadim participated in the Hispanic vernacular culture of the Iberian Peninsula. Even in the time of al-Andalus many spoke Hispano-Romance, and even their Hebrew literature belies a deep familiarity with and love of their native Hispano-Romance languages. However, since the early sixteenth century the vast majority of Sepharadim have never lived in the Hispanic world. Sepharadim lived not in Spanish colonies defined by Spanish conquest, but in a network of Mediterranean Jewish communities defined by diasporic values and institutions. By contrast, the conversos, those Sepharadim who converted to Catholicism, whether in Spain or later in Portugal, Italy, or the New World, lived mostly in Spanish Imperial lands, were officially Catholic, and spoke normative Castilian. Their connections, both real and imagined, with Sephardic cultural practice put them at risk of social marginalization, incarceration, even death. Some were devout Catholics whose heritage and family history doomed them to these outcomes. Not surprisingly, many Spanish and Portugese conversos sought refuge in lands outside of Spanish control where they might live openly as Jews. This exodus (1600s) from the lands formerly known as Sefarad led to a parallel Sephardic community of what conversos who re-embraced Judaism in Amsterdam and Italy by a generation of conversos trained in Spanish universities. The Sephardic/Converso cultural complex exceeds the boundaries of Spanish imperial geography, confuses Spanish, Portuguese, Catholic, and Jewish subjectivities, and defies traditional categories practiced in Hispanic studies, and are a unique example of the Global Hispanophone.
This collection of scholarly essays offers a new understanding of local and global myths that have been constructed around Shakespeare in theatre, cinema, and television from the nineteenth century to the present. Drawing on a definition of myth as a powerful ideological narrative, Local and Global Myths in Shakespearean Performance examines historical, political, and cultural conditions of Shakespearean performances in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. The first part of this volume offers a theoretical introduction to Shakespeare as myth from a twenty-first century perspective. The second part critically evaluates myths of linguistic transcendence, authenticity, and universality within broader European, neo-liberal, and post-colonial contexts. The study of local identities and global icons in the third part uncovers dynamic relationships between regional, national, and transnational myths of Shakespeare. The fourth part revises persistent narratives concerning a political potential of Shakespeare’s plays in communist and post-communist countries. Finally, part five explores the influence of commercial and popular culture on Shakespeare myths. Michael Dobson’s Afterword concludes the volume by locating Shakespeare within classical mythology and contemporary concerns.
In recent years social scientists have been interested in the growth and transformation of global cities. These metropolises, which function as key command centers in global production networks, manifest many of the social, economic, and political tensions and inequities of neoliberal globalization. Their international appeal as sites of financial freedom and free trade frequently obscures the global city underbelly: practices of labor exploitation, racial discrimination, and migrant deferral. This chapter explores some of these global tensions, showing how they have shaped the strategies and technologies behind urban crime prevention, security, and policing. In particular, the chapter shows how certain populations perceived as risky become treated as pre-criminals: individuals in need of management and control before any criminal behavior has occurred. It is demonstrated further how the production of the pre-criminal can lead to dispossession, delay, and detention as well as to increasing gentrification and violence.
This introduction embeds the Exploring the Global History of American Evangelicalism special issue into current historiographical debates in the field of US evangelicalism and globalization. It lays out the methodological framework and thematic scope of the special issue.
In discussing the works of 16th-century theorists Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili, this article examines how two different conceptions of a global legal community affect the legal character of the international order and the obligatory force of international law. For Vitoria the legal bindingness of ius gentium necessarily presupposes an integrated character of the global commonwealth that leads him to as it were ascribe legal personality to the global community as a whole. But then its legal status and its consequences have to be clarified. For Gentili on the other hand, sovereign states in their plurality are the pinnacle of the legal order(s). His model of a globally valid ius gentium then oscillates between being analogous to private law, depending on individual acceptance by states and being natural law, appearing in a certain sense as a form rather of morality than of law.
This paper explores a predicted framework for global e-Learning that emphasizes the transformative interaction among the effective individuals around the regional, national and global networking indicating advancement on pedagogical models, instructional strategies, and learning technologies in the context on upcoming generations. We have to develop the framework on global enhanced teaching and effective e-Learning to fulfill the required method, implementing design and appraising the feedback with educational technology according to topological network for disseminating of global education technology. Despite decades of development, electronic teachers still need practical examples of how to use electronic educational technology within a pedagogically effective way including electronic curricula, language tools and electronic facilitators. We present a theoretical framework for our representation method, taking into account previous models and characteristics of an effective e-Learning. In addition, we illustrate the course that we have to develop and implement among the participants in this expected model. We follow this with an evaluation of achievement, both in the course implementation and the amplitude framework. Finally, we focus advanced research trajectories of the model and recommendations for how to further develop the route.
This paper highlighted the plummeting price of oil that is at present the most sensational energy story in the world. This research work outlined the main reasons for the current situation is the low demand for oil as well as concerned companies found it more profitable to extract oil by unconventional methods. In Bangladesh, no changes have been made in the oil price. By figure, at present (June 2017) BPC (Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation) is making profit of Tk 13.77 per liter of Kerosene, of Tk 14.68 per liter of Diesel, of Tk 19.57 per liter of Furnace oil and of Tk 18.75 per liter of jet fuel oil where the very latest world crude oil price come down $ 35.62. The present study is done to make the overview of the world oil prices and Bangladesh as well using purely secondary data collected mostly from newspaper reports, websites, magazines, journals, periodic, reviews and various published data. This study also investigates the impact of the sharp fall oil price to the economy of Bangladesh. In the study, there is seen negatively correlation with the oil price of the world and that of Bangladesh. This paper will be useful to the all stakeholders even policy makers to take proper initiatives for the adjustment of the plummeting oil price of the world. This present study may disseminate that the BPC, as the government-sponsored firm, cannot make the maximum profit as like the Monopoly Company in Bangladesh, so, the retail consumer may give the benefits of the adjustment with the sharp oil price fall in the world.
This course examines the history of virtue in the context of the expanding global economy from the Renaissance to the early twentieth century. The course follows the growth of the European economy from the Italian Peninsula in the sixteenth century to the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century, the development of colonial and worldwide economies in the eighteenth century, and the process of industrialization in the nineteenth century. It tracks the changing understandings of virtue and commerce through the writings of leading theorists of the day, including James Harrington, Bernard Mandeville, Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Max Weber.
This is the abstract of a paper presented at the 9th European Shakespeare Research Association Congress, July 27–30, 2017, University of Gdańsk, Poland (Panel 10: “National Repositories of Shakespeare Translations: (Dis)assembling the Black Box”).