Studying North Africa poses a variety of problems. Historical as well as archaeological research bears the burden of a colonial view on Africa’s past tending to overemphasize its Roman aspects. Berber (Numidian and Moorish) political entities together with Punic (Carthaginian) cities had a long history when Rome entered the African scene. The history of Roman North Africa in its narrow sense started with the forming of Africa vetus in 146 BCE, after the third Punic War and the destruction of Carthage. For the centuries to come, Rome relied on client kings in Numidia and Mauretania to secure the new province.
This essay traces David Little’s pioneering work on religion, human rights, and religious freedom over the past half century, and its distillation in a recent collection of his essays and a Festschrift in his honor.
The tale of Óðinn and Rindr is a complex one, but in its version found in the early thirteenth-century Gesta Danorum, we can see how Óðinn’s gender fluidity has become simplified into transvestism. From a being capable of changing gender, Óðinn now simply adopts the disguise of a woman. With this disguise, Óðinn rapes the woman Rindr in order fulfil a prophecy. Thomas Hill found that this version of events has a parallel in Scotland: the story of Prince Ewen and St Thaney. Ewen similarly uses transvestism to gain access to an otherwise unwilling woman in order to rape her. This article will compare the two narratives to each other and to the broader figure of the male transvestite as found in the medieval period. What similarities are there? And what brought the writers of these tales to utilise this narrative trope? This article will firstly argue that Óðinn’s gender identity is simplified in the Christianised version of the Óðinn and Rindr narrative found in the Gesta Danroum. Secondly, it will take into account issues surrounding Thaney’s believed virginity, which caused the writer of the mid–twelfth century Vita Kentegerni Imperfecta to adopt the Óðinn and Rindr narrative, male transvestite rapist included. Finally, it will note that these stories show far more about their writer’s perceptions of transvestism, rather than having any basis in reality.
In his review of Martin Scorsese’s 2013 film The Wolf of Wall Street, Variety’s Scott Foundas suggests that having ‘a quadruple album’s worth of classic rock and blues fill up the soundtrack’ contributes to the film being ‘almost self-consciously Scorsesean’ in its style. Yet even a cursory survey of the music heard both in that film and across Scorsese’s oeuvre reveals an eclecticism not accounted for by this view. This chapter argues instead that pre-existing music, and the director’s particular manners of employing it, are common and thus defining features of his work, forming a key part of his authorial signature, and indeed doing so more strongly for him than for perhaps any other mainstream filmmaker.
This article considers Simon and Garfunkel’s ‘Mrs. Robinson’ in its original context of The Graduate (Nichols, 1967) in relation to its composition, lyrical content and narrative role. The song’s later use in other films is then examined, with consideration of issues of intention and reception in regard to evocation of The Graduate, and of the part that visual and other elements play in this alongside music. ‘Mrs. Robinson’ is seemingly universally employed as a deliberate nod to Nichols’s film, but a variety of contexts for and manners of this can be identified, in part using Serge Lacasse’s (2000) concepts of ‘autosonic’ and ‘allosonic’ quotation (where the former is the quotation of recorded sound, and the latter that of abstract musical structure, realized through new sonic means). The article argues that these later uses of ‘Mrs. Robinson’ have contributed to a re-inscription of the song’s signification in culture more broadly; much as Benjamin is seduced – led astray – by Mrs Robinson in The Graduate, we ourselves have now been seduced into new and arguably false interpretations of her musical namesake.
For his 1991 remake of J. Lee Thompson’s 1962 film Cape Fear, Martin Scorsese had the Bernard Herrmann score of the original adapted by Elmer Bernstein. This article first examines that Herrmann score, before showing how it was effectively ‘re-composed’for the later film, with Bernstein taking its basic components and redeploying them in often entirely new musical and filmic contexts, while also combining them with his own newly composed music and further pre-existing material from Herrmann’s rejected score for Torn Curtain (Hitchcock, 1966). The motivations for the reuse of Herrmann’s music, and issues of interpretation arising from the 1991 score’s compilation status will be considered. The article aims to be relevant not only for scholars of music in moving-image media, but also for those interested in remakes and media intertextuality more generally.
This text aims to study the marine fauna (fish, crustaceans, corals, among other animals) in Portugal from the Middle Age to the Early Modern Age (13th-16th centuries). To achieve our purpose, we will use legal documentation (municipal and regia) and literature (travel and knowledge books). We aim, on the one hand to make know the marine fauna and, on the other hand, to analyze the diverse forms of exploitation and management of these resources (fishing, transport, commerce and supply). At the same time, we emphasize conflicts, as well as solutions and policies adopted by communities to manage, preserve and conservation marine fauna.
A cultural, historical, and practical guidebook to Kagawa Prefecture on the island of Shikoku across the narrow Seto Inland Sea from the main island of Japan. Formerly the province of Sanuki, a compact area with convenient train lines, it has great potential for tourism. An active region culturally for more than 2,000 years, it was the birthplace of the great saint Kobo Daishi Kukai, whose career inspired the Pilgrimage of Shikoku. The Kompira-san mountain area is an intersection of the gods syncretizing a half-dozen Asian religions. Folklore, artifacts, and history, as lovingly explained by co-authors who were local teachers, bring out the culture from Emperors to everyday people.
This chapter explores the role of metaphors in shaping our thought and language in general, and in the fields of law and religion in particular. Drawing on modern cognitive theorists like George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, the article distinguishes and illustrates the roles of “orientation,” “structural,” and “ontological” metaphors in everyday life and language. Drawing on jurists like Robert Cover and Steven Winter, it shows how metaphors work both in describing the law in terms like “the body,” and in prescribing the foundational beliefs and values on which the legal system depends. Finally, the chapter explores the ample use of the sacred number three in the law, and speculates tentatively whether this legal appetite for “triads” might provide traction for the development of a Trinitarian jurisprudence. This chapter is dedicated to Michael Welker, a leading German systematic theologian and Christian philosopher, who has helped build a strong trans-Atlantic discourse on law and religion.