This article outlines a concept of anarchist internationalism as non-domination. The discussion falls into two parts. The first outlines the general theory, building on analysis of the anarchist critique of republicanism, describing anarchist internationalism as cosmopolitan and based on a permanent “right of secession”. The second part considers how this general conception was developed in the context of anti-colonial struggle and nationalist resurgence. It examines Ananda Coomaraswamy and Rudolf Rocker’s responses to the global spread of capitalism and the evolution of the European state. Their contrasting critiques of nationalism and images of international community expose shortcomings and biases in the application of non-domination and tensions which test cosmopolitan ties and voluntary agreements. Yet their work also demonstrate that anarchist internationalism is not a failed dream of class solidarity and that, understood as a principle of non-domination, it promotes emancipatory, transformative processes directed against static configurations of power.