• In interpreting the risen Jesus’ action of appearing ‘out of nowhere’ at John 20:19-20 (and Luke 24:36) and his inferred action of rising from the dead at John 20:5-7 (and Luke 24:12), the consensus of both classical and modern biblical tradition has been to understand these actions as Jesus in some sense passing through physical objects and therefore the space containing them. Hence Jesus’ action of standing in the midst of the disciples at John 20:19-20 and his inferred action at 20:5-7 of rising from the dead such that he is no longer in his grave-clothes are both described in terms of passing through physical objects. Yet it can be argued that the same ‘event’ in both cases was interpreted by John in terms of sovereignty over space as opposed to ‘mere’ sovereignty over physical objects. 20:19-20 and 20:5-7 can be understood in terms of John attributing sovereignty over space to Jesus.