• Wang, Mu-Hao Sung and Wang, Lawrence K. (2022). COD determination and cleaning solution preparation using potassium permanganate for hazardous waste minimization.. In: “Evolutionary Progress in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM)”, Wang, Lawrence K. and Tsao, Hung-ping (editors). Volume 4, Number 6, June 2022; pp.41. Lenox Institute Press, MA, USA. STEAM-VOL4-NUM6-JUNE2022. ISBN 978-0-9890870-3-2. ……………….ABSTRACT: An Asian analytical method for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water and wastewater is introduced. In this alternative COD testing, an excess amount of potassium permanganate is added to the test water under heat (100 degree C) for a fixed time to complete chemical oxidation. The amount of COD is determined from the consumption of potassium permanganate during chemical oxidation of organic substances in the test water. In comparison with American Standard Method using potassium dichromate, the alternative potassium permanganate method requires shorter oxidation time, simpler apparatus, and produces no hazardous chromium waste. Also proposed is a new cleaning solution using potassium permanganate (instead of potassium dichromate) and the concentrated sulfuric acid for cleansing the laboratory glassware. Both alternative COD test method and alternative cleaning solution significantly minimize hazardous waste pollution. American researchers are invited to further study and perfect the Asian COD method and the new potassium permanganate cleaning solution, for possible replacement of both potassium dichromate COD method and potassium dichromate cleaning solution.
    KEYWORDS: Invitation for further research, Alternative potassium permanganate COD analytical method, Alternative potassium permanganate cleaning solution, Hazardous chromium waste minimization, Green environmental technology