• A discussion of majāz or allegory that is commonly ascribed to the 15th-century Ottoman polygraph Mollā Lüṭfī and that builds on the works of al-Sakkākī and al-Qazwīnī.
    The author gives two alternative overarching classifications: a linguistic vs. cognitive allegory classification, and a metaphor vs. hypallage classification that is supplemented with three more ways of cognitive signification.
    Following a brief discussion of the various types of hypallage, the author provides a rather confusing array of alternative metaphor typologies, including types such as basic metaphor, metaphor of dependency, explicit metaphor, implicit metaphor, imaginary metaphor, confirmatory metaphor, absolute metaphor, enhanced metaphor, naked metaphor, proverbializing metaphor, metaphor of affectionate irony, and metaphor of sarcastic irony.