• Both judicial systems created by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (hereafter the ECHR/the European convention) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) individual applications based on offensive language.

    This paper aims to analyse how do European and African judges cope with offensive language applications in respect of the characteristics of their systems. It will also try to analyze which messages are expressed by offensive-language applicants and what are their expectations by introducing such applications.