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    Has anyone here looked at lexical borrowings from Greek into Arabic? Word lists/bibliography appreciated.


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    I was recently interviewed on the Digital Hammurabi podcast. Tune in for more about how I went from Aeschylean tragedy to Bedouin poetry:…


Performing Relationships:  Choreia, Qasida, and Community — A Cross-Cultural Perspective


The communal culture of classical Greece was fundamentally musical.  This, as many have noted, harkens back to a pre-literate society, where song and oral formulae were aids to composition, memory, and cultural preservation.  Yet, even after the Greeks developed writing, musical expression retained pride of place. Thus the Athenian confidently asserts: οὐκοῦν ὁ μὲν ἀπαίδευτος ἀχόρευτος ἡμῖν ἔσται, τὸν δὲ πεπαιδευμένον ἱκανῶς κεχορευκότα θετέον; (Plat. Laws 654a-b).


This ‘culture of musical expression’ is far more than a source of entertainment, or a basis for education (as Plato would have it).  Indeed, they are fundamentally connected to the roots of the community itself, as Damon observes in the Republic: οὐδαμοῦ γὰρ κινοῦνται μουσικῆς τρόποι ἄνευ πολιτικῶν νόμων τῶν μεγίστων  (5.424c) Not only does the medium itself represent social cohesion — paradoxically, it is also frequently used to depict stasis and social isolation.  Indeed, the very act of performing a choral song expresses and confirms the network of reciprocal social relationships by and through which communities are formed, either directly or meta-poetically.  So we see Odysseus reduced to tears by Demodocus’ song, utterly isolated in his grief, even as he is an honored guest among the Phaeacians (Od. 8.521-31) and we also see Achilles sing the tales of heroes to Patroclus, although anger isolates him from the rest of his comrades (Il. 9.189-91).


The social significance of musical expression extends beyond the creation and performance of song to the political realm, as we see in Hesiod, where the wise king is one who, through the blessing of the Muses, is able to deploy language skillfully, soothing high spirits and maintaining social order (Thg. 80-92;93-103).  The successful king, then, must also be a successful performer.


When we turn our gaze to the Arabian desert, we find that Nabati poetry, the oral poetry of the Bedouin, has served a strikingly similar function within that culture.  Indeed, the Arabs themselves consider poetry to be the essence of their language and the poetry of the desert to express the fundamental social and political structures of their society: “The people of pre-modern Arabia were ruled by eloquent persuasion rather than by outright force; therefore, the gift of poetry constituted an essential qualification for effective leadership” (Sowayan 1985: 67).


And the fundamental quality of that poetry is that it is a musical performance: “When one hears a new poem one may ask ‘wiššū h-aṭ-targ’ (‘What is this rhythm?’) or ‘wišlōn šēlitah?’ (‘How is it sung?’)”  (Sowayan 1985:158).


Nabati poetry ranges in scope from brief, direct love-poems composed for the most intimate of audiences to accounts of tribal histories and versified negotiations between rival parties.  It is not epic poetry and, yet, the nature and function of its role in Arab society, particularly that of the Najd, certainly calls the Homeric poems to mind — these are also performances outside of historical time, marked by a unique dialect, memorializing communal bonds and individual losses, all in song.


My aim, without supposing that these works are genetically related in any sense, is to compare the nature and function of these traditions, and to consider the wider role of poetry, music, and expressions of community in East and West.  It is my earnest hope that such an endeavor will both better our understanding of the ancient world we study and an often misunderstood part of the modern world we share.


Sowayan, S. A., (1985), Nabati Poetry: The Oral Poetry of Arabia (Berkeley: University of California Press).


About me:  Classicist, philologist, eternal student of Indo-European, endlessly entertained by etymologies.

Things I like: strong tea, Oum Kalthoum, re-performances of ancient drama and music

Things I dislike: Fitting into boxes, filling out boxes, checking off boxes, packing boxes.

Random FAQs:

Where are you?  I’m nomadic, so it depends.

Where do you work?  See above.

Do you speak Arabic?  Not as well as I should, but I’m working on it.

How do you propose to do this work without a degree in Arabic?  Very carefully.  I think my philological training has prepared me fairly well for work like this, plus, I have the support of very kind, learned colleagues helping me learn Arabic and come to grips with that textual tradition.

There isn’t a lot here, where can I find out more?  Follow me on Twitter @DrVHSmitherman.




University of Bergen; Ph.D., Classics,  2016. Advisor: Prof. Pär Sandin.

University of Oxford; M.Phil., Classics, 2009.

Washington and Lee University; B.A. Classics, 2007.



Smitherman, Valerie Hannon, “Hearing the Erinyes’ Voices: Thoughts on the ‘Binding Song’ (Eu. 307-96)”.  Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Postgraduates in Ancient Literature 2013, Digital publication. Hosted by: University of St. Andrews Library Journal Hosting Service.  URL: <;

Smitherman, Valerie Hannon.  “Chiasm.” Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and

Linguistics, Brill.


First published online: 2013

— “Epanalepsis.” Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, Brill.


First published online: 2013

— “Kinship Terms.” Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, Brill.


First published online: 2013

—  “Onomatopoeia” Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, Brill.


First published online: 2013

Blog Posts


    Choreia and Qasida: Ancient Greek and Bedouin Poetry Traditions

    Upcoming Talks and Conferences

    Follow-up talk on the Digital Hammurabi podcast (sometime this summer).


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