• As a theoretical paradigm is a very natural and common-sense, idea-model – an idea or paradigm of a human being that is easily grasped model-idea. It is not surprisingly, then, that the Body-Mind-Spirit Paradigm appeared very early in human history.

    The Ho’omana religion actually recognizes three different types or levels of “spirit,” which would be roughly equivalent to the Body-Mind-Spirit hierarchy of Pythagoras. The unihipilior spirit, or lower soul, equates with the ‘physical body,’ the uhane spirit can be understood as the ‘mind,’ while the ‘aumakua soul would be the higher soul or ‘spirit.’ The word, ‘aumakua, could perhaps be best translated as “utterly trustworthy ancestral spirit.” It should be noted that, in Polynesian culture, as well as most other primitive societal belief systems, human beings had “souls” and folklore about the ghosts of deceased men or “spirits” and apparitions were frequently heard tales.
    The Polynesian-Hawaiian religion was a dualistic religion in which for every force in nature there was a competing counterpart. While a person could achieve mana through righteousness (pono = right acts), a person could also obtain mana through war and violence. In their religion, Ku, the god of war and rulers, was balanced by Lono, the god of peace and fertility. Hawaii was unique in the Polynesian culture in the worship of gods. One author noted that Hawaii was a very rich island or territory and that wealth created a reason or justification for fighting – which might explain its unique characteristic of a religion with gods and goddesses.