• Kenneth Pargament vigorously argues that, “There is a deeper dimension to our problems. Illness, accident, interpersonal conflicts, divorce, layoffs, and death are more than “significant life events.” They raise profound and disturbing questions about our place and purpose in the world, they point to the limits of and underscore our finitude.” (p. 11 Spiritually integrated Psychotherapy) Pargament’s statement, of course, beings the limits of academic abstraction as well as methodology into focus. In fact, the famous psychologist, Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988), “promotes the idea of attitude and attitude change due to its importance in a quickly changing world. He emphasizes that real world contexts are important, even if regarded as “messy” compared to controlled lab experiments.
    Isobel Helen, a logotherapist, a form of psychoanalysis based on Frankl, observes that, “The lack of discussion around meaning, spirituality, fundamental questions of man are seen by Logotherapist schools as the missing element in mainstream psychological study and psychotherapy. Essential Frankl believed that there is no psychotherapy apart from the theory of man. As an existential psychologist, he inherently disagreed with the “machine model” or “rat model”, as it undermines the human quality of humans. She went on to say that as a Logotherapist, “We train people to find meaning and spirituality in their lives – [there is] endless data on the seriously transformative effects of meaning in life. Frankl reduced suicide rates in young people to zero when he opened Logotherapy clinics in Vienna.”