• COCOA PROCESSING WASTE PRETREATMENT AND MOBILE FLOTATION PLANTS

    Author(s):
    Lawrence K Wang (see profile) , Mu-Hao Sung Wang
    Editor(s):
    Hung-ping Tsao
    Date:
    2022
    Group(s):
    Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM)
    Subject(s):
    Research
    Item Type:
    Book chapter
    Tag(s):
    dissolved air flotation, cocoa, chocolate, wastewater treatment, mobile plant
    Permanent URL:
    https://doi.org/10.17613/sjj4-9z67
    Abstract:
    Wang, LK and Wang, MHS (2022). Cocoa processing waste pretreatment and mobile flotation plants; In: “Evolutionary Progress in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM)”, Wang, LK and Tsao, HP (eds.), 4 (7F), STEAM-VOL4-NUM7F-JULY2022. ISBN 978-0-9890870-3-2. 43 pages. July 2022, Lenox Institute Press, MA, USA. ...........ABSTRACT: A dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit was installed at a cocoa manufacturing plant in New Jersey, USA for pretreatment of their cocoa processing wastewater. This publication introduces : (a) the DAF process system and literature review; (b) the cocoa and chocolate manufacturing procedures; (c) the DAF performance data and (d) new mobile flotation plants. The pretreatment objective is reduction of TSS to less than 300 mg/L, FOG to less than 100 mg/L, and BOD5 by over 85%. The pretreated water is discharged to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When the DAF was operated under the 66.67% recycle mode, using 11 mg/L alum (as aluminum oxide) and 9.75 mg/L polymer, the following were the average performance : (a) influent TSS = 144 mg/L, effluent TSS = 56 mg/L (62% TSS reduction); (b) influent FOG = 115 mg/L, effluent FOG = 47 mg/L (59% FOG reduction). Although the influent TSS ranged from 78 mg/L to 1460 mg/L during the operational period, the DAF effluent TSS were always less than 60 mg/L. DAF influent FOG was as high as 3108 mg/L, but DAF effluent FOG was controlled at below 100 mg/L at all times. The target 85% BOD5 reduction was achieved. Average concentrations of floated sludge was over six percent. Mobil plants of DAF, dissolved air flotation-filtration (DAFF), DAF-DAF, DAF-DAFF, etc. are also developed for emergency, seasonal, or temporary services to small customers.
    Notes:
    KEYWORDS: Memoir, Lenox Institute of Water Technology (LIWT), Krofta Engineering Corporation (KEC), Chocolate industry, Cocoa and chocolate manufacturing procedure, Cocoa processing waste, Dissolved air flotation (DAF), Supracell, Food industry waste, Sludge thickening, Dissolved air flotation and filtration (DAFF), Combined DAF and DAFF (KAMET or KAMWT), Mobile DAF, Mobile DAFF, Mobile DAF-DAF, Mobile DAF-DAFF, Emergence service.
    Metadata:
    Published as:
    Book chapter    
    Status:
    Published
    Last Updated:
    8 months ago
    License:
    All Rights Reserved
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