• UNDERSTANDING EVAPORATION, TRANSPIRATION, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, PRECIPITATION AND RUNOFF VOLUME FOR AGRICULTURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Author(s):
    Lawrence K Wang (see profile) , Mu-Hao Sung Wang
    Editor(s):
    Hung-ping Tsao
    Date:
    2022
    Group(s):
    Environmental Humanities, Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM), Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Sustainability, World-Ecology Research Network
    Item Type:
    Book chapter
    Tag(s):
    evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, runoff, agricultural waste, Environment
    Permanent URL:
    https://doi.org/10.17613/m8tf-zd10
    Abstract:
    This publication introduces (a) natural evaporation from water and land surfaces and the evaporation equations using either metric units or the US customary units; (b) natural transpiration and evapotranspiration phenomenon ; (c) the description, applications, limitations, design criteria and performance of evapotranspiration wastewater treatment process; (d) precipitation and the US historical rainfall charts including the 25-year 24-hour rainfall chart; (e) the parameters of dry-weather flows, runoff from rainfall, runoff from snowmelt, runoff volume (ROV), and total precipitation less evaporation (TPLE) value for storage pond design; (f) the temperature, effect of wind chill and wind chill equations using either metric units or the US customary units; (g) the adjusted mean monthly free water surface (FWS) evaporation for selected US stations; (h) the US annual FWS evaporation chart; (h) the US annual runoff from concrete or un-surfaced feedlots as percent of mean precipitation charts; (i) the US runoff from concrete or un-surfaced feedlots as percent of mean monthly precipitation charts; (j) the US criteria for siting, investigation and design of liquid manure storage facilities; (k) precipitation and condensation calculation; (l) the vapor pressure mathematical model and evaporation analysis for an agricultural storage pond; (m) a runoff determination example; (n) an example of runoff from an agricultural concrete feedlot; (n) an example of runoff from an earth feedlot; (o) an example of agricultural storage pond design ; and (p) glossary terms and research references. The US technical information, charts and examples presented in this publication are typical examples for developing countries to follow, in order to avoid or reduce the unnecessary non-point sources of agricultural pollution, in turn, to achieve the UNIDO's goal of sustainable industrial and agricultural development around the world.
    Metadata:
    Published as:
    Book chapter    
    Status:
    Published
    Last Updated:
    12 months ago
    License:
    All Rights Reserved
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