• The “Bilingual” Cippi of Malta Translated in Alphabetic Akkadian (499 BCE)

    David Olmsted (see profile)
    Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean archaeology, Alphabetic Akkadian, Phoenician Studies
    Akkadians, Religions, Mediterranean Region, History, Ancient
    Item Type:
    Online publication
    malta, cippi, Jacques Barthélemy, drought, Akkadian, Ancient Mediterranean religions
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    The early claim that these two cippi are bilingual in Greek and Phoenician is shown to be false. Therefore, these texts cannot be used as the basis to understand the non-attested language of Phoenician. This historical fraud originated with Jacques Barthélemy (1716-1795). Phoenician is a letter style of Alphabetic Akkadian and not a language. Alphabetic Akkadian was the empire language of the area before it was replaced by Greek and Latin. The letter styles on these cippi are Maltese, Phoenician-influenced Maltese, and Greek Island. The two Greek Island style texts blame a drought on the inappropriate mixing of the two power classes of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm which is typical of temple texts in that letter style. In contrast the Maltese text on the cippus still in Malta blames the drought on both the astrological powers and the life-growth powers. The Phoenician influenced Maltese text in the Louvre blames the full moon god Su while holding blameless the emotion and astrological power classes of the motion powers. Deities mentioned in the two Maltese texts are: Su (full moon god), Opener (goddess Utu), Baker (god Yahu), Yahu (manifestation god), and Thesu (wind goddess). Deities mentioned in the two Greek Island texts are: Revealer (Yahu) Reed-Boat (Ayu), Ayu, Su, Shepherd (Su), and Alu (life-growth power source god). Of all the letter styles so far examined the Maltese style is closest to that of the Philistines
    Last Updated:
    3 years ago


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