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DepositSupplement to Barbara C. Allen, “Gaming Russian and Soviet History,” NewsNet: News of the Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies. Vol. 61, no. 1 (January 2021): pp. 15-17.

This text consists of sections omitted from the published article due to space constraints. The games discussed here are “Mongol Matrix,” “After Catherine (the Great),” “Yalta, 1945,” and “Eyeball to Eyeball, 1962: The Cuban Missile Crisis.”

DepositThe Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) [Part Two]

The Russo-Japanese War—fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan from 1904 until 1905—was undoubtedly among the most significant wars in world history. Not only did it define the future of imperialism adopted by the Russian Empire, but it also shaped the future of world politics. Some scholars even refer to the Russo-Japanese War as ‘World War Zero’ (Steinberg 2007), given its profound and long-lasting impacts. This paper will elucidate the Russo-Japanese War, elaborate on the events and battles that took place during the war chronologically, analyze the consequences of the Russo-Japanese War, and draw a conclusion elucidating how the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese War affected US-Japan relations.

DepositThe Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) [Part One]

The Russo-Japanese War—fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan from 1904 until 1905—was undoubtedly among the most significant wars in world history. Not only did it define the future of imperialism adopted by the Russian Empire, but it also shaped the future of world politics. Some scholars even refer to the Russo-Japanese War as ‘World War Zero’ (Steinberg 2007), given its profound and long-lasting impacts. This paper will elucidate the Russo-Japanese War, elaborate on the events and battles that took place during the war chronologically, analyze the consequences of the Russo-Japanese War, and draw a conclusion elucidating how the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese War affected US-Japan relations.

DepositKhural democracy: Imperial transformations and the making of the first Mongolian constitution, 1911–1924

The political system of early socialist-era Mongolia, established by the first Constitution in 1924, can be interpreted as a vernacular version of the Soviet system, in which the formally supreme representative body, the State Great Khural (“assembly”), was sidelined by the standing Presidium of the Small Khural and the Cabinet and eclipsed by the extraconstitutional party authorities. The establishment of this sham and nominal parliamentary system was a consequence of the Bolshevik new imperialism, the inclusion of the Mongolian People’s Republic into the informal Soviet empire, which occurred through both military control and structural adjustments under the supervision of the Communist International. The 1924 Mongolian Constitution, however, was not a mere copy of its Soviet 1918 and 1924 counterparts but a transimperial document. In its text and especially in the history of its making, it reflected the entangled imperial transformations of the Russian and Qing empires and featured both indigenous (Khalkha and Buryad-Mongol) agency and vernacular political discourses. Khural existed as a nonrepresentative yet deliberative consultative assembly in 1914–1919, while Tsebeen Jamtsarano attempted to make a Mongolian khural one of the world’s many parliaments, even though his draft constitution was affected by the practices of revolutionary Russia.

DepositThe Struggle to Create a Regional Public in the Early Nineteenth-Century Russian Empire: the Case of Kazanskie izvestiia

In the early part of the reign of Alexander I (1801-1825), the emperor sought to reform Russia through the creation of new European-style institutions. The aim was to ensure that Russia’s great-power status would be retained through updating its institutions, in line with a reform impulse dating back to Peter the Great and before. Among the new institutions formed in the first few years of the nineteenth century were ministries, such as of education, based on the centralized French system, as well as new universities based on the German model of the research university. German universities, such as Göttingen, were marked by university autonomy and the creation of a public, although one that might be limited to professors and teachers, capable of judging the merits of its own research in an open way. Both the ministries and the universities sought to shape a public that could respond to their needs. This chapter argues that these new institutions led to a conflict between an idea of the public as consumers of knowledge provided by the ministries and an idea of the regional public as producers of knowledge, fostered by the new research universities.

DepositWhen Kropotkin met Lenin

Kropotkin’s meeting with Lenin in 1919 shows how contemporary concepts of vanguardism and prefiguration rely on concepts of revolution that have been historicised through the experience of the Russian Revolution. This fleeting single encounter also draws out a contrast between anarchist and Bolshevik ideas. The risk of returning to Russian revolutionary history to re-examine anarchist and Bolshevik concepts of revolution is that it encourages a misleadingly bipolar narrative. However, the point is neither to deny the complexity of the revolution nor to show what divided anarchists from Bolsheviks, still less Marxists – as if there were no greys in this relationship. Rather it is to consider what Kropotkin’s analysis of revolution, advanced in the course of a revolutionary struggle, represented and where prefigurative ideas elaborated thereafter, stand in relation to it.

DepositTranslations of Rudolf Steiner’s Agriculture Course (Koberwitz, 1924): The Seminal Text of Biodynamic Farming and Organic Agriculture

The Agriculture Course of Dr Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) is the seminal text of biodynamic farming and the organic agriculture movement. It has appeared in 16 languages. The Austrian New Age philosopher, Dr Rudolf Steiner, presented his Agriculture Course in the village of Koberwitz, Germany (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in the summer of 1924. The course of eight lectures laid the foundations for the emergence, over the following two decades, of biodynamic farming and organic agriculture. There were 111 attendees at the course at Koberwitz, many were farmers, all were Anthroposophists. The Agriculture Course was presented in German. It was one of the final lecture series that Rudolf Steiner conducted in his lifetime. It was a course of what Rudolf Steiner called “hints”, to be put to the test, not prescriptions nor dogmas. The Agriculture Course appeared in print in German in 1926. It was initially available only to members of the Experimental Circle of Anthroposophic Farmers and Gardeners (until some time after WW2). Members of the Experimental Circle agreed to test Rudolf Steiner’s ideas with the view to the publication of the results. The first translation of the Agriculture Course appeared in English in 1929. That translation was by George Kaufmann (later known as George Adams) who brought to the task his years of masterfully and extemporaneously rendering into English Rudolf Steiner’s lectures in German for audiences. The Agriculture Course has been translated into a further 14 (at least) other languages: French (1943); Swedish (1966); Italian (1973); Danish (1976); Dutch (1977); Spanish (1988); Hebrew (1989); Norwegian (1992); Romanian (1997); Russian (1997); Serbian (2004); Portuguese (2005); Polish (2007); and Esperanto (2009). As organic agriculture continues to increasingly attract consumers, advocates, practitioners, and scholars, interest endures in the seminal text of biodynamics and the organics movement.

DepositThe Gothic Novel Reader Comes to Russia

This chapter presents a case study of the gothic novel reader and the way notions about gothic novels and their readers developed in Russia. The chapter takes a comparative approach, drawing on reviews and reader accounts from both England and Russia, to demonstrate how similar attitudes in both countries were despite Russia’s later gothic wave. Finally, the chapter considers readers’ memories of gothic novels and their legacy in Russian culture.

DepositUkraine and Russian Neo-Imperialism: The Divergent Break

This book first proves that the rationale behind Russia’s aggressive actions in its neighborhood resides in its goal of achieving certain geostrategic objectives which are largely predefined by the state’s imperial traditions, memories, and fears that the Kremlin may irretrievably lose control over lands which were once Russian. In other words, Russia constantly remains an expansion-oriented and centralized state regardless of epochs and political regimes ruling over it. That is its geopolitical modus operandi successfully tested throughout history. This book also scrutinizes Ukraine as a young post-colonial and post-communist state which, unlike Russia, is more prone to democratize and decentralize. To understand the logics of the ongoing Ukrainian transformation, its domestic and international developments are assessed in their connection to the Soviet political tradition and the medieval legacy of the Cossack statehood (15-18 centuries). This book outlines differences between the political cultures of Ukrainian and Russian nations. This envisages scrutiny of historical experiences and their impacts on the Ukrainian and Russian state-building, institutional structures, national identity, religious issues, and other features of sovereignty. Based on these discoveries, a structure of symbolic thinking which predefines indigenous understandings of justice and order has been constructed for Ukrainians and Russians.