DepositPaper and Digital Ecologies in the Glastonbury Miscellany (Cambridge, Trinity College MS O.9.38)

One of a number of leaves in the manuscript to have been badly damaged in the sixteenth century, folio 89 of the Glastonbury Miscellany reminds its modern readers of the fragmentary nature of the medieval textual record. Work began on this paper manuscript in the middle of the fifteenth century at Glastonbury Abbey. Transported to London in the 1530s after the dissolution of the abbey, the manuscript was still being added to in the 1560s in the spaces between and alongside its existing texts, as well as in a number of previously empty folios. Like so many manuscripts, it is an artifact that productively traverses the divide between the medieval and early modern. This eventful history took its toll, though, and the damaged folios were recently mounted on new sheets of paper as part of the conservation of the manuscript. The modern blank sheets occupy an intriguing role in this new assemblage: cutting across the commonplace association of blank space with future inscription, they are specifically not for further writing. The time of the Glastonbury Miscellany is resolutely polychronic: medieval, early modern, and modern intentions are all legible in its surviving materials. The looping ecology of paper production, consumption and recycling in the premodern age has been joined by a digital ecology of screenic reproduction. In this paper, I take folio 89 of the Glastonbury Miscellany as the occasion to theorise not only the material and conceptual entanglements of medieval and early modern paper, but also the modern remediation of these folios as digital objects: the interwoven, though also occasionally fractious paper and digital ecologies of my title. What kinds of material history of paper’s production and use unfold from manuscripts like the Glastonbury Miscellany? And how do modern materials (the paper mounts of folio 89, but also the associated materials of digital technologies) work to shore up its fragmentary folios?

DepositMichael Walzer’s Communitarianism and the Interfaces with Education

In pedagogic research, it is common for the articulation between philosophy and education to happen from broad conceptual assumptions, which is usually called ideal of education. In this sense, other areas should be given the responsibility of investigating subjects related to school education, such as curriculum or evaluation. This Thesis aims at putting into question that assumption, dealing with the idea of a philosophy arising from school, a connected philosophy. For this, the communitarian philosophy of Michael Walzer is used as a theoretical support. Communitarianism, as a political philosophy, opposes to philosophical liberalism, as it sets that good life should be put into perspective in every specific context, and from one’s everyday practice. However, communitarian philosophy does not have a unified doctrinal body, for attaining the aims of this text (an articulation between the school and philosophy) Walzer’s work was used along with his several concepts to support the idea of a good school based on democratic citizenship, participation and protagonism of children and teenagers. Walzer’s communitarianism is advocated as having as its paradigm the concept of practical philosophy, and in this sense all other subjects explored by the author, such as pluralism, civil society, tolerance, distributive justice, community, social criticism and morality, are all based on the ideal of a reality-focused philosophy. That basic perception is therefore adopted for the formulation of twenty propositions that consolidate an idea of communitarianism as focused on education or – more appropriately – as focused on the school, aiming at offering alternatives to an ever-growing scenario of community detachment (specially urban).